Nail fungus is a problem that is not customary to discuss in public. The reason for this prejudice lies in the fact that fungal infections are often transmitted if personal hygiene is not followed. In addition, the very appearance of the nails affected by the fungus does not cause patients to desire to flaunt them. Also a sensitive topic is seborrhea, lichen, candidiasis of the skin and other diseases caused by pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic fungi.
In fact, the problem of skin mycoses and onychomycoses (fungal infections of the nails) is much wider and does not boil down to personal sloppiness and moral and aesthetic discomfort. According to WHO statistics, 5 to 15% of the world's population suffer from mycoses. Pessimistic dermatologists believe that every fifth inhabitant of our planet is infected with a fungus, it's just that the disease is latent or mild. The incidence rate increases with age: by the age of sixty, the probability of a person having a foot fungus is 60%, fingernail fungus is 25-30%. This is due to an age-related slowdown in metabolic processes, especially in the distal parts of the body, which by definition are the fingers and toes. Additional risk factors are:
- impaired blood supply to the limbs (varicose veins, Raynaud's syndrome, rheumatic vascular disease);
- immunodeficiency conditions, including HIV;
- the presence of fungal infections on the skin and in the internal organs;
- traumatic lesions of the nail plates and adjacent tissues;
- professional risks.
What is nail fungus and what is it dangerous
Beautiful nails, skin and hair are today a priority for both women and men. The surrounding people perceive well-groomed and healthy nails as an indicator of a successful, successful person. But no matter what the social status and material wealth of the individual, the risk of infection of the nail fungus always remains.
When there are obvious signs of the disease, many begin to hide their condition, for example, when they damage the nail plates on their fingers, they wear gloves, while they fungus on their toes they wear socks even with sandals and sandals, or they wear closed shoes in the heat, exacerbating the disease.
Fungal nail damage is called onychomycosis, from the ancient Greek words ὄνυξ, genus. ὄνῠχος (ones, onihos) "nail", μύκης (mukes) "mushroom" + suffix –ωσις (in Russian - oz) - a chronic infection. In Russia, every tenth visit to a dermatologist is caused by a fungal disease of the nails. This prevalence is due to the incredible survival of pathogens, among which the first place is occupied by microscopic dermatophyte fungi. They affect not only the nails, but also the skin and hair, but it is on the nails that the disease is the most stubborn and aesthetically unpleasant in nature.
The culprits of mycoses can persist and reproduce in the environment for a long time, especially in warm and humid places. From the point of view of possible infection, the most dangerous are considered public places with high humidity: saunas, pools, baths, gyms, shaded places on the beaches, as well as garden greenhouses and greenhouses, if you walk barefoot there. Frequent provocateurs of the appearance of nail fungus can be injuries, wearing uncomfortable shoes, prolonged or uncontrolled use of antibiotics, secondary immunodeficiency and other adverse factors. Fungus is also brought into the house by pets: both dogs and people are affected by microsporia.
Everyone who has encountered an unpleasant disease knows that it develops slowly, and is treated with incredible difficulty. The reason for both of these is the structure and metabolism of parasitic fungi.
Mushrooms (in Latin Fungi) from the beginning of the 70s of the last century, biologists distinguish into a separate natural kingdom, since its inhabitants combine the signs of both animals and plants. Like most representatives of the plant world, mushrooms are homebodies, not prone to changing places. Their basis is mycelium (mycelium), which is fixed in an organic substrate and never leaves it independently. Mycelium with the help of filament-hyphae is able to penetrate a significant amount of the substrate, extracting nutrients from it using osmosis (absorption by the entire cell wall due to the pressure difference inside and out). Recently, in Canada, scientists studied the mycelium of an ordinary honey agaric, the fruit body of which was 3 cm tall. It turned out that the baby's mycelium occupies almost a hectare in the district and weighs about 10 tons, and the age of this monster is at least 1,500 years.
Fungi, both primitive microscopic and higher, having spore-forming organs - fruiting bodies, do not contain chlorophyll and do not participate in the process of photosynthesis, like plants. But they have a number of signs that make them related to representatives of the animal kingdom. As a nutritional reserve, the fungus does not accumulate starch, but glycogen. Mushrooms have a specific digestive system, although, unlike animals, their digestion is external. The wall of the fungal cell is not able to pass large molecules of proteins, fats and carbohydrates from the surrounding substrate. Inventive nature came up with an original solution: digestive enzymes that are released into the environment are synthesized in cells (mycetes). They break down large organic molecules and ensure their permeability through the membrane. To ensure absorption, even primitive microorganisms can artificially lower intracellular pressure before absorption, and then increase it so that food does not slip back.
The ability to aggressively colonize living tissues and the external digestion of fungi are the main pathophysiological factors that determine their danger to the host organism. Mycelium, branching and sprouting through tissues, inevitably destroys them, like a malignant tumor in miniature. Digestive enzymes secreted by mycetes disrupt the vital functions of cells. Although the main food of the nail fungus is already dead cells of the nail plate, with massive damage to the nail, live keratinocytes and, especially dangerous, onychoblast cells are involved in the process. They are located in the proximal region of the nail plate, a whitish hole near the cuticle roller, and as a result of intensive division, they provide nail growth. In a healthy person, the nails grow at a speed of 1-2 mm per week, and the nails on the hands are twice as fast as on the feet. If onychomycosis affects the area near the cuticle, the division of onychoblasts slows down or stops altogether. The plate ceases to grow in length, the areas affected by mycosis are not updated, and ultimately total dystrophy and destruction of the nail plate occurs.
The only, but very weak consolation can be that even with very serious nail damage, the infection rarely penetrates the nail bed. Dead keratinocytes are the favorite food of the fungus, but it is much more difficult to fight with living cells of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, protected by local and general immunity. However, from the affected nail, fungi inevitably penetrate the bloodstream and lymphatic channel. Most of the aliens are destroyed by lymphocytes and other immune cells, but this constant fight against the infection inevitably draws on itself the strength and energy of the body, which undermines human health and affects its ability to resist other pathogens. It is also important that even strong immunity is not able to completely destroy the colony of mushrooms that settled in the nail. Nail plastic composed of keratin protein is deprived of full blood supply, which means that the body cannot send there barrage units in the face of lymphocytes and macrophages. The only plus here is that onychomycosis is not acute, does not cause severe intoxication, fever, pain. The suffering of patients is primarily moral.
Fungal nail damage, even with complete destruction of the plate and the involvement of the proximal and lateral ridges in the pathological process, is relatively rarely complicated by secondary bacterial infection. Combined fungal infections are also rare. Scientists explain this by the synthesis in the body of fungi of natural antibiotics, which are detrimental to competitors - bacteria, protozoa and other fungi. It is no coincidence that many antibacterial drugs are created from the vital products of fungi. The founder of the antibiotic penicillin, discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928, is the result of processing a culture of fungi of the genus Penicillium. Fleming discovered penicillin by chance. In laboratory glassware, which contained a colony of staphylococci, mold wound up. After a few days, no trace was left of the dangerous microbes. The causative agents of onychomycosis do not possess powerful antibiotic activity, but they are able to protect their living space.
The most common fungal infections of the nails
Anthroponous (human) mycosis of nails and skin is most often caused by three types of microorganisms:
- dermatophytes (Trichophyton and others);
- yeast-like fungi (first of all, the causative agent of thrush Candida albicans, as well as his relatives C. Tropicalis and C. Parapsilosis;
- mold fungi of different species - Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Fusarium.
The frequency of damage to the nails on the legs and arms (if taken as 100% for all registered onychomycoses) is shown in the table:
|Fungus genus||Foot damage||Brush damage|
From the above data it follows that in 10-20% with infection with dermatophytes, the infection is localized both on the legs and on the hands. Candida clearly tends to colonize brushes. And in about 5-10% of cases, combined infections are diagnosed, in which the nails are affected by different types of fungi. Such cases are especially difficult for diagnosis and treatment: the symptoms of the foot fungus are approximately the same for all pathogens, but the drugs may require completely different ones. However, the development of broad-spectrum fungicidal preparations has long been a trend in modern pharmacology, since the metabolism of all parasitic fungi is approximately the same and the main task of the drug is to suppress the synthesis of ergosterol in the fungal cell and deprive it of the ability to absorb food through the membrane. As a result, parasites quickly die of hunger.
Regardless of the type of parasite, fungi rarely penetrate immediately into the nail plate, this only happens with injuries. Usually they first penetrate the skin through microcracks, abrasions, abrasions, and fresh corns. Favorite places of introduction are interdigital folds, which in themselves represent a good reservoir for fungal activity. Gradually, mycelial hyphae reach the edge of the nail plate and penetrate beneath it. Here for the fungus is a real incubator: warm, moist, satisfying and safe. Dead keratinocytes are both food and protection from the adverse effects of the external environment.
They are distinguished by diversity and excellent survival and adaptability. The natural habitat is the soil where fungi actively participate in the biocenosis, processing the remains of living organisms and forming a fertile layer. You can get infected both from humans and pets, and walking barefoot in the garden. Mushroom infestation is not high, a pair of contacts is clearly not enough. One or more additional risk factors and immunity problems are required.
In the genus of dermatophytes, people are most often bothered by a person:
- Trichophyton rubrum. First affects the distal part of the nail, gradually spreads towards the cuticle. The nail becomes coarse and thickened, exfoliates, turns yellow. The infected skin in the neighborhood dries and peels.
- Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The causative agent of superficial white onychomycosis. Infection is typical for regulars in public baths and saunas - the fungus is very moisture- and heat-loving. A characteristic symptom is damage to the big toes and interdigital localization (the patient is worried about severe itching, redness of the skin, small cracks, papules and pustules).
- Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton violaceum, Epidermaphyton floc. These are omnivorous mushrooms, they affect both nails and other areas of the skin, as well as hair. Onychomycosis caused by them are recorded in about 5% of cases of dermatophytosis.
All dermatophytes form a branched mycelium in the body of the nail and in the epidermis, which leads to a gradual exfoliation of tissues, peeling of the skin, and the formation of dandruff on the hairline.
Thanks to thrush, which at least once in my life hurt up to 80% of women, Candida albicans is the most famous type of harmful mushroom. They belong to opportunistic microorganisms and live in the body and on the skin of all people without exception. With a decrease in immunity or a malignant mutation of the fungus, it sharply activates and attacks the host organism in various places. It is enough to recall the fungus on the penis, a photo of which on the Internet will shock a user far from medicine.
Candida can get into the nail in a hematogenous and traditional way - through common shoes, a towel, and close household contact. Unlike dermatophytes and molds, candida does not have a full mycelium, it forms only the so-called pseudomycelium. Therefore, in the nail, it settles closer to the cuticle, which inevitably leads to the death of onychoblasts and the suspension of nail growth. The plate fades, its surface film exfoliates. For nail candidiasis, periods of remission and exacerbations are characteristic. On the hands, candidiasis occurs 5 times more often than on the legs.
Mold is the most insidious causative agent of onychomycosis, since often the fungus is not satisfied with the destruction of the nail and begins to actively spread throughout the body - fungemia occurs. Mold damage is characterized by rather rapid, compared with dermatophytes, total destruction of the nail plate and damage to the skin rollers and the nail bed. Fortunately, the infection rate is relatively low, not more than 15%. Symptoms and treatment of mold of the foot differ from those with dermatophyte damage. Very often, people who do not consider it necessary to consult a specialist and conduct a microbiological examination of the lesion, unsuccessfully treat onychomycosis with drugs that do not affect mold fungi.
The spores of mushrooms are incredibly viable: they were found on top of Everest and in Antarctica, they are able to survive in hot spring water and in a capsule on the lining of a space station. In nature, fungi, including pathogenic ones, surround a person everywhere. But not all contactees are infected with onychomycosis and other fungal infections. What factors increase the risk of infection?
The vulnerability of a person to nail fungus is directly proportional to age. This is due to the following reasons:
- Slowing down metabolism. In older people, nails grow more slowly, which makes it easier for fungi to colonize and destroy them. In addition, in old age, digestion problems are often observed, as a result of which a deficiency of trace elements and vitamins necessary for the healthy development of the nail plate may appear - fungi also use this.
- Problems of local and general blood supply. In old age, atrophy of small capillaries occurs, the work of the entire cardiovascular system is disrupted. Less oxygen, antioxidants, and immunocompetent cells enter the distal sections. The body loses the ability to fight infection in the nails.
- Untimely diagnosis and the start of treatment, or even abandonment of it. Unfortunately, older people pay much less attention to appearance than young people, especially men. Often, such a trifle as exfoliating yellowed nails, itching between the fingers, hyperkeratosis of the feet people after 60 years simply do not pay attention, becoming carriers of infection and infecting relatives.
- The effect of concomitant diseases. Diabetes mellitus per se is a risk factor for the development of onychomycosis. And diseases such as arthritis, osteochondrosis, cerebrovascular accident, ischemia impose serious restrictions on the physical capabilities of the patient. It is difficult for him to perform daily hygiene procedures, take care of his nails, especially on his feet.
A fungus that has penetrated the nail is, by definition, a foreign agent with its antigens against which the body produces antibodies. But against fungi of the genus Candida, people have practically no immunity, since they have been living in the body since childhood. Another thing is mold fungi and dermatophytes. With them, the body, as far as possible, tries to fight. But this fight can be complicated by primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. They can be caused by:
- damage to the organs of the immune system - red bone marrow, spleen, thymus, thyroid gland, pituitary gland;
- human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV / AIDS);
- severe infectious diseases;
- course administration of antibiotics, corticosteroids;
- taking antidepressants and hormonal drugs;
- suppressive therapy after organ transplantation;
- chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer.
It should be noted once again that the usual immune mechanisms against many fungi do not work in principle, since the body does not consider this life form to be alien. There are even hypotheses that mushrooms are a conditionally rational civilization endowed with unknown to us ways of accumulating and transmitting information and the ability to adapt to the most incredible conditions of existence.
Additional risk factors to which individual articles are devoted to the site include:
- diabetes - an excess of glucose in the blood and tissues provides the parasitic mushrooms with an ideal habitat. It provokes an infection and a typical blood flow disorder of the legs - "diabetic foot";
- eating disorders;
- Raynaud's syndrome (capillary atrophy of limbs);
- rheumatoid diseases (for example, systemic lupus erythematosus);
- generalized and skin mycoses;
- the fungus can appear both after a wound or bruise of the foot, and as a result of long wearing tight and uncomfortable shoes. Excellent conditions for the reproduction of mushrooms are created by leather substitute shoes, socks and tights made of synthetics, the constant stay of feet and hands in dampness;
The socio-epidemiological factors that provoke infection with the fungus include:
- close household contact with the carrier of the fungus;
- frequent visits to places of potential infection (pools, saunas, gyms);
- neglect of personal hygiene rules or objective impossibility of its observance.
Mycosis of the hands is a typical occupational disease of vegetable store workers, as well as people working in food industry enterprises, forced to stay in rubber gloves for a long time. Mycosis of the feet - a typical scourge of the military, geologists, hunters - people who do not take off their shoes for a long time and do not have the ability to regularly hygiene their feet. The incidence of onychomycosis among persons held in prisons is high.
Long-term medical practice clearly showed that the treatment of nail fungus in the initial stage is many times more effective than the treatment of advanced cases. For a fungus on the skin, this is not so relevant, since here the parasite does not have a natural shield, which is a nail plate.
The list of therapies for external mycoses includes:
- Synthetic and herbal antimycotic agents for topical use - ointments, creams, sprays, special varnishes, with which they make pedicures for fungus.
- Systemic drugs used mainly orally.
- External antiseptics for the treatment of affected areas.
- A variety of traditional medicine, using mainly herbal ingredients with fungicidal or fungistatic activity.
- Hardware methods for treating a fungus, primarily a laser.
The surgical method popular in the past for the complete removal of the affected nail plate is practically not used today. It is very traumatic, painful, leads to disability and does not guarantee complete recovery, since with a deep lesion of the nail, mycelial hyphae penetrate the surrounding tissues and simply cannot be cured by simply removing the destroyed nail body.
Depending on the location of mycosis against fungi, apply:
- gels, ointments and solutions for applications for nail fungus;
- medical-cosmetic film-forming solutions - varnishes for nail fungus;
- gels, ointments and creams for skin fungus;
- therapeutic shampoos, balms and masks for damage to the hairline.
The active substances of local preparations are the same as those used in systemic drugs.
Mostly, tablets and capsules for oral administration. There are several groups of antimycotic drugs with a more or less wide spectrum of fungicidal and fungistatic activity:
- antibiotics of the polyene group;
- imidazole derivatives;
- triazole derivatives;
- N-methylnaphthalene derivatives (allylamines);
- echinocandins and drugs that are not included in any groups.
Polyene antimycotics are notable for the fact that they are synthesized ... by fungi, or rather actinomycetes of the genus Streptomyces. The first drug of the Nystatin group was obtained back in the late forties. Prior to this, mycoses were treated exclusively with antiseptics - iodine and potassium permanganate.
The principle of action of polyenes is classic - they bind to the ergosterol membrane of the fungus, which increases its permeability. The osmotic pressure drops in the cell, and the substrate destroys it from the outside. The disadvantage of this group of drugs is that almost all dermatophytes are resistant to them.
Today, azoles are the most common and widely used group of antimycotics for both external and systemic use. The mechanism of action is also aimed at violating the integrity of the cell membranes of fungi, but is realized by a preventive strike - azoles prevent the synthesis of ergosterol, the main building material of the fungal cell wall.
The action of azoles is mainly fungistatic - they do not allow fungal colonies to grow.
Azoles of the latest generation are effective against almost all pathogens of external epidermal and nail mycoses, including Aspergillus molds, on which the first generations of azoles did not act.
Allylamines act predominantly fungicidally, at an early stage blocking the conversion of squalene to lanosterol in the fungal cell, from which ergosterol should then be synthesized. Squalene accumulates in the cells and reaches a toxic concentration - the fungus poisons itself. Allylamines are most active against dermatophytes.
Echinocandins are a relatively young group of antimycotics with limited use. Very important is their activity against "indestructible" Aspergillus molds. Group drugs are not absorbed in the digestive tract and are used exclusively parenterally (intravenously) in a hospital setting. The mechanism of action is to inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-beta-B-glucan, another component of the membrane of fungal cells. Plus drugs - low toxicity: in the human body there is no 1,3-beta-B-glucan.
Another natural preparation, Griseofulvin, is obtained from Penicillium nigricans mold cultures. It has selective activity against dermatomycetes and is used orally for persistent mycoses of the skin that are not amenable to local treatment.
The appointment of systemic drugs should be done by a professional dermatologist, self-medication is unacceptable here. It can lead to temporary remission, but not to eradicate the fungus on the skin or in the nail plates to the end. Do not forget that almost all antimycotics have an average and high degree of toxicity, affecting, first of all, the liver. No matter what moral torment the patient may suffer from damaged nails or damage to the skin and hair, the damage to the liver should be recognized as a more serious factor and the pros and cons should be weighed before starting treatment. With persistent course treatment, most superficial mycoses can be defeated by a combination of antiseptic drugs and folk remedies.
Antiseptics have been the only means of combating pathogenic fungi for millennia. For the treatment of nail and skin fungus, apply:
- alcohol solution of iodine and potassium iodide;
- hydrogen peroxide;
- potassium permanganate;
- Apple vinegar;
- baking soda;
- birch tar and tar soap;
- propolis solution;
- silver nitrate (lapis);
- tinctures and decoctions of calendula, lilac, celandine, oak bark and many other herbs.
We will say right away: it is unlikely that it will be possible to cure the fungus alone, especially in advanced cases, the support of official medicine is needed. But together with synthetic external drugs, it is possible to win over the fungus (with the exception, perhaps, of molds, against which heavy artillery is necessary).
Laser and nail dissolution
In recent decades, laser treatment of dermatomycosis and onychomycosis is becoming more widespread. The laser beam burns out the mycelium of the fungus in the nail plate and matrix, without destroying the nail itself and without causing the patient the slightest concern.
Another hardware method is the dissolution of the destroyed nail plate with a special reagent. Thus, the fungus under the plate loses food and can be freely treated with fungicidal agents. Unlike surgical excision of the nail, the procedure is painless and does not send the patient to the hospital.
We can cure the fungus - the main thing is to be patient!
Fungi that cause onychomycosis, dermatomycosis and trichophytosis are small but persistent destroyers that slowly but surely undermine the strength of our body. They don't die from a fungal infection, but this is not a reason not to pay attention to it. The sooner you pay attention to the symptoms of a foot fungus and begin a planned treatment, the less time and money it will take.
We hope that the readers of the site will not only gather useful and relevant information on its pages, but will also contribute to the fight against fungal infections of the skin, hair and nails. Beauty and health are in our hands!
Beautiful nails today are a priority for both women and men. Well-groomed and healthy nails are even perceived as an indicator of a successful person in a business. But whatever the social status and financial situation, there is always a risk of infection with nail fungus. When the first signs of the disease appear, many begin to hide their condition, for example, when the nail plates are damaged on the fingers, gloves are put on, and when the fungus appears on the toes, socks are put on. In warmer seasons, it's most difficult to hide the problem.
The nail fungus is called onychomycosis. In Russia, every 10th visit to a dermatologist is the cause of fungal nail disease. This prevalence is due to the survival of pathogens, among which in most cases dermatophytes are found. Culprits of nail fungus can persist and reproduce in the environment for a long time. In terms of infection with onychomycosis, the most dangerous are public places with high humidity: saunas, pools, baths. Frequent provocateurs of the appearance of nail fungus can be injuries, improper use of antibiotics, secondary immunodeficiency and other adverse factors.
Nail fungus. Types of treatment
People who have encountered a disease such as nail fungus know that its treatment is a lengthy and complex process. This problem does not cause particular discomfort. The main problem for patients is a violation of the aesthetics of nails.
Nail fungus is an inflammation of the nail plate under the influence of various pathogenic fungi on it. The development of the disease is rarely associated with the onset of a serious process, since the first symptoms appear on the skin of the fingers, interdigital spaces in the form of peeling, cracks. Nail fungus develops if no treatment is given at the first symptoms. Pathogens are introduced into the nail, providing themselves nutrition and development under the nail plate. Furrows appear on the nail, then yellowness, the nail exfoliates, thickens and crumbles. At this stage, getting rid of the fungus is difficult, because the nail protects the fungi from external factors and from local medicines.
Nail fungus is a disease in which a long treatment is required, so it is often thrown over and lives with it all its life. So how to treat nail fungus? There are currently several ways.
Antimicrobial tablets and capsules. Without them, therapy should not be carried out, especially in the advanced stage. The active substance of the tablets settles in the nails and kills the fungi. Take the drugs for a long time (up to three months). Many pills are highly toxic, so such drugs are contraindicated in liver disease. Those who do not have such problems should periodically donate blood for biochemistry to check the liver.
Antimicrobial ointments and solutions. Apply topically to affected nails. They have a destructive effect for fungi, but they penetrate poorly under the nail plate. Usually, before application, use means, after which the nail softens and is removed. It is necessary to apply up to six months.
Iodine. Often used in the treatment of nail fungus. Apply to affected areas, add to the foot bath. Learn more
Vinegar. Nail fungus is afraid of acidic substances, so acetic acid is a good treatment, but only as an addition to the complex of procedures. Vinegar is added to the foot baths, dripped onto the nails diluted with water or undiluted. Learn more
Salicylic acid. It is used as well as vinegar.
Potassium permanganate. It has long been known to everyone as an antiseptic, therefore it is used for any inflammatory processes, including as a treatment for nail fungus. With potassium permanganate, they prepare foot baths. Learn more
Antiseptic oils. Many houses store tea tree oil, eucalyptus. These are known antiseptic agents, therefore, they are used for various diseases. Learn more
It is important to remember that nail fungus requires complex measures. Treatment should not be reduced to one remedy. After all, it can act against some types of fungus, and the pathogen will be different. The results of laboratory tests can answer this question.
Properly selected treatment will be effective if regularly treated with antiseptics shoes, socks, bath mats, manicure accessories, as nail fungus has survivability on foreign objects, where the scales of the nails remain.
Prevention of nail fungus
In order not to bother with such a long treatment, you need to protect yourself from infection.
- First of all, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the skin of the hands and feet, since weakened immunity due to injuries, calluses, inflammations is a direct threat to infection. It is necessary to treat such manifestations, to seal with a plaster.
- Daily hygiene of hands and feet, change of socks. The causative agent of fungal infection survives best in a humid environment, therefore, with increased sweating, it is important to use drying agents. It is also impossible to dry, because this leads to peeling and cracking.
- Avoid walking barefoot in public places, wear closed flip flops on the beach, in the sauna, pool. If you still walked to such places without shoes, you need to thoroughly wash your feet with soap and apply an antifungal cream for prevention.
- If one of the relatives has a nail fungus, assure them to undergo treatment in order to avoid infection of other family members. Do not use common household items (bath mats, shoes, clothes, manicure tools).
Take care of your legs and arms!
By: Dr. Amy Lewis