Fungal pharyngitis and its symptoms

Dr. Hooman-Khorasani
Posted in Uncategorized

Fungal pharyngitis is also called pharyngomycosis . This disease is characterized by the development of an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane lining the pharynx. It has a fungal etiology and is most often chronic. In general, this pathology rarely leads to any complications. However, sometimes against its background, paratonsillar or retropharyngeal abscesses can form , and with the most unfavorable course, even fungal sepsis.  

Fungal pharyngitis is common. According to various sources, among all infectious pathologies from the pharynx, it accounts for thirty to forty percent. At the same time, it was noticed that in recent years more and more people are faced with this disease. There is no gender or age dependence. It is worth noting that quite often such an infection has a combined character. In other words, not only the pharynx is involved in the pathological process, but also other anatomical structures, for example, the gum or tongue.  

In more than ninety percent of cases, the development of fungal pharyngitis is caused by fungi belonging to the genus Candida . Such fungi are classified as conditionally pathogenic flora. This suggests that they are found in the body even in healthy people. However, in the normal state, these mushrooms do not lead to the development of an inflammatory process. For this to happen, provoking factors must be present. Much less often, the occurrence of pharyngomycosis is associated with other representatives of the fungal flora.  

The main predisposing factor for the formation of fungal pharyngitis is any immunodeficiency condition. They can be associated with frequent infectious diseases, endocrine and metabolic disorders, malignant neoplasms, and so on. In the event that a person has been taking antibacterial drugs, glucocorticosteroids for a long time, or undergoing chemotherapy, the likelihood of such a pathology in him increases several times. Removable dentures are another predisposing factor.

Separately, it should be said about patients suffering from HIV infection. In them, these fungi reproduce most actively and lead to damage not only to the pharynx, but also to many other internal organs. According to statistics, approximately ten percent of people with AIDS subsequently die from various fungal infections.

Fungal pharyngitis is divided into several types: pseudomembranous, catarrhal, hyperplastic and erosive-ulcerative. These varieties are distinguished on the basis of concomitant morphological changes in the pharyngeal mucosa. The pseudomembranous variety is characterized by the formation of single or multiple plaques with a whitish color. Such deposits are easily removed with a spatula, and hyperemic surfaces remain in their place. The catarrhal variety is most favorable. It manifests itself as hyperemic, shiny areas. The hyperplastic variety is accompanied by the appearance of white plaques tightly adhered to the underlying tissues on the pharyngeal wall. With the erosive-ulcerative variety, the mucous membrane is covered with erosive and ulcerative defects.

Symptoms characteristic of pharyngomycosis

We have already said that pharyngomycosis can have an acute or chronic course. The acute form is accompanied by much more striking symptoms. In the chronic form, the clinical picture is moderate, but this process is accompanied by frequent exacerbations. Sometimes there are up to ten or more exacerbations during the year.

With this disease, a sick person complains of burning and sore throat, as well as increased dryness. As a rule, pain syndrome is present with varying degrees of severity. The unpleasant sensations are most intense when eating. Sometimes the patient may indicate that the pain is radiating to the area of ​​the lower jaw or ear. The clinical picture is complemented by symptoms indicating a general intoxication of the body. These include low-grade fever, headaches, general weakness and malaise, and swollen regional lymph nodes.

During the examination, redness and swelling of the mucous membrane, as well as the presence of various plaques on it, are found. In the event that the inflammatory process was caused by fungi of the genus Candida , the plaques that appear have a whitish color and are easily removed from the mucous membrane. Another specific point is the cheesy appearance of the raids.

In the chronic form, the same symptoms are present, but they become noticeable only during the exacerbation. Outside of it, a sick person may not present any complaints at all.

Diagnosis and treatment of fungal pharyngitis

Such an infection can already be suspected on the basis of the concomitant clinical picture. The diagnosis is confirmed by pharyngoscopy, which reveals characteristic changes in the pharyngeal mucosa. To determine the nature of the pathogen, microscopic and cultural analyzes are prescribed . In order to identify the main cause that led to the reproduction of opportunistic flora, other additional examinations may be prescribed.

Treatment of fungal pharyngitis consists of the use of antifungal drugs that can be used both locally and systemically. They are prescribed for one to two weeks. In addition, topical therapy includes the use of antiseptic solutions. In parallel, it is necessary to deal with the treatment of the underlying pathology, which provoked the reproduction of opportunistic fungi.

Prevention of infection

To prevent this pathological process, it is recommended to focus on increasing the level of immune defense, as well as to use antibacterial drugs and glucocorticosteroids only under the supervision of a physician.  

Antifungal medicines

Dr. Hooman-Khorasani
Posted in Uncategorized

Medicines for treating fungal infections

Fungal diseases are widespread among the inhabitants of any country. There are a great many diseases of these, but they all develop as a result of infection of the patient with various types of fungi. Mycosis of the feet is most common. This is one of the most popular reasons for patients to visit a dermatologist. However, in addition to this disease, there are many others: various types of lichen (multi-colored, ringworm, etc.), keratomycosis , dermatophytosis (these include trichophytosis, microsporia, etc.), skin candidiasis, etc. Medicines that are used to treat fungal infections are called antimycotics . 

Each of these diseases has its own clinical picture, and the effective medicine in each case will be different. To date, the list of drugs is quite large, and the doctor always has plenty to choose from. Therefore, in most cases, the treatment of fungal infections is successful. However, the main difficulty lies in the fact that, in addition to therapy, the patient must comply with strict hygienic measures that are individual for each disease. In addition, the duration of treatment is usually several weeks or even months. And the success of treatment depends on the combination of these two factors (which depends on the patient’s patience).

What medicines are there for treating fungal infections:

Antifungal antibiotics of the polyene group – Amphotericin B, Nystatin , Griseovulvin , etc. Each of these drugs is effective against a specific type of fungi. Synthetic azoles – Ketoconazole , Clotrimazole , Miconazole , Fluconazole , etc. These are the most effective antimycotic agents against most of the existing types of fungi that infect humans. Antiseptics – iodine, potassium permanganate, brilliant green, salicylic and benzoic acid. They are used extremely rarely, in the absence of drugs of the first 2 groups. Medicines exist in various forms: tablets, injections, topical ointments. The latter is the most gentle, because the drug acts directly on the site of infection and does not affect the body as a whole. However, only a doctor can decide whether local forms are sufficient or whether oral or injected drugs are needed. 
    
 

What complications drugs can give to the human body? This issue is also of great concern to patients to whom the doctor issues a prescription for the purchase of these drugs. For each of them, the list of side effects is different, it is usually prescribed in the instructions for medical use of the medicine. Before starting any medication, not just antifungal medication, you must study this important document very carefully. The most common side effects of antimycotics are as follows:

  • Deterioration of liver function
  • Deterioration of kidney function,
  • Dyspeptic manifestations (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, etc.),
  • Effect on blood (decreased platelet or white blood cell count),
  • Allergic reactions, etc.

An effective medicine against microsporia

Most people have heard of such a disease as ringworm. In scientific language it is called “microsporia”. This disease is extremely unpleasant. However, with a timely visit to a doctor and taking all the necessary measures, it will remain only in memories. There are effective medications for this disease, but their choice depends on the form of the disease (microsporia of the scalp or body skin).

Ringworm is spread from infected animals (most often stray cats or dogs). Children most often get sick due to a weaker immune system. Infection occurs when wool, on the surface of which there are fungi, gets on the child’s skin. This is possible when the kid tries to stroke a stray animal, play with him, or if he spent the night in a baby carriage left for the night on the staircase (which is so soft and comfortable).

The most effective drug for the treatment of microsporia of the skin of the body is griseovulvin , because it works against dermatophyte fungi . They most often affect only the skin. Microsporia of the scalp is more difficult to treat, so the question of which medications are best suited for such a patient is decided by the dermatologist individually. Most often this is a combination: taking pills, topical treatment and strict hygiene measures to prevent re-infection.

Candidiasis: what medications will help the patient

Fungi of the genus Candida are found on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes of most people and are part of the normal microflora of the body. In most cases, they do not cause any harm to a person, since their growth is limited by other microorganisms and the human immune system. But when the body is weakened (patients with diabetes mellitus, systemic diseases, patients after chemotherapy for cancer, taking corticosteroids and cytostatics , AIDS patients, etc.), fungi invade the cells of the skin and mucous membranes, causing candidiasis. 

Often, pregnant women with a clinic for genital candidiasis turn to an appointment with a gynecologist, despite the fact that they observe all the rules of hygiene. They are worried about itching and discharge, and even more – the question, where is it from? The answer is simple: pregnancy is also a state of natural weakening of immunity.

Many patients with candidiasis are interested in the answer to the question: what drugs are most effective against this disease? The answer depends on many factors, so the specific treatment will be individual. The most effective drugs against Candida fungi are nystatin , levorin , natamycin . These drugs have a narrow spectrum of action, and they are prescribed exclusively for the treatment of candidiasis. The second important link in treatment is finding out the reasons for the decrease in immunity and the appointment of specific drugs.

Intestinal candidiasis: what is the danger of a fungal infection?

Dr. Hooman-Khorasani
Posted in Uncategorized

Almost every woman knows what genital candidiasis is. However, few people know that this fungus can also affect the gastrointestinal tract, which significantly affects its work. The disease is famous for its completely different clinical forms, which can easily be disguised as other ailments. Treatment of candidiasis is a long and extremely responsible process: the patient will not only have to take the necessary medications, but also revise his lifestyle and start strengthening the immune system.

Intestinal candidiasis: why does the disease develop?

Intestinal candidiasis is an infectious fungal disease that affects the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. This pathology is one of the most important problems of modern gastroenterology: it is quite difficult to determine the nature of the disease in time. This is due to the widespread prevalence of the pathogen – the fungus of the genus Candida , which is also a component of the microflora of the body of a completely healthy person (about 80% of the population are asymptomatic carriers).

Physicians distinguish two main forms of fungal infection: invasive and non-invasive. Most often, the first form of the disease occurs: it develops against the background of dysbiosis and an infectious disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract. Candida fungi begin to multiply actively in the intestinal lumen, but do not penetrate into the mucous membrane. At the same time, a large amount of toxic metabolic products are released, which irritate the intestines. They provoke further progression of dysbiosis, and also contribute to the formation of allergic reactions.

Invasive candidiasis develops according to a completely different mechanism. Against the background of a weakened immune system, fungi are tightly attached to the intestinal epithelium, after which they penetrate deep into its thickness. Often, Candida spreads through the systemic circulation, as a result of which other organs and tissues (liver, pancreas) are affected. The following factors increase the likelihood of developing the disease:  

  • pregnancy;
  • old or young age;
  • oncological diseases;
  • a course of antibacterial, corticosteroid or radiation therapy;
  • endocrine pathologies;
  • congenital and acquired immunodeficiency states.

How does a fungal infection manifest?

Today, it is customary to distinguish between three main types of candidiasis: non-invasive, invasive diffuse and focal. The non-invasive form of the disease is the most common. It is characterized by a rather mild course: a moderate increase in body temperature, unstable stool, excessive gas formation, and also minor abdominal discomfort. Against the background of the disease, an exacerbation of allergic diseases often occurs.

Invasive diffuse fungal infection is characterized by an extremely serious condition of the patient. Intoxication grows very quickly: the body temperature rises, there is a sharp weakness, blood pressure drops. Patients report the appearance of severe abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, constant nausea and vomiting. This type of fungal infection is most common in people with immunosuppressive conditions.

The invasive focal form of the disease often complicates the course of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. In this case, a local lesion of the mucous membrane occurs in the area of ​​the ulcer defect: the fungus begins to actively grow and multiply there. In this case, the symptoms do not differ from the usual manifestations of the disease.

One of the important elements in the treatment of a disease is diet. Candidiasis requires the patient to seriously reconsider nutrition: without this, recovery will take a long time. First of all, the patient should refuse those products that give the fungi food for further growth and reproduction. This group includes all sweets and sugary drinks (juices, soda), any alcohol, fatty and fried foods, as well as mushrooms. The patient is advised to turn his attention to poultry, red fish, cereals, non-starchy vegetables. Fruits and berries should be consumed in a limited way: they are also a source of sugars.

It is worth noting that the food should be fractional. Small portions, taken 5-6 times a day, are much better absorbed. All dishes should be stewed, boiled or baked. It is better to refuse salt, spices and hot sauces. Also, patients should not forget about compliance with the drinking regime.  

Intestinal candidiasis treatment

In most cases, the treatment of candidiasis is carried out on an outpatient basis, but if the patient’s condition is serious, hospitalization is indicated. The basis of therapy is antimycotic drugs that disrupt the life cycle of the fungus and prevent its development. Most often, ketoconazole , itraconazole and fluconazole, as well as amphotericin B , are used for this purpose . These drugs are actively absorbed from the intestine and have a systemic effect.

Non-invasive candidiasis is treated with non- resorptive polymycotics that are poorly absorbed by the mucous membrane. These include natamycin and nystatin . Also, the treatment of candidiasis is aimed at restoring the composition of the normal intestinal microflora: for this purpose, probiotics and prebiotics are prescribed . After the course of therapy, the patient is shown to strengthen the immune system using physiotherapy and immunostimulants.   

Prevention: is it possible to prevent the development of the disease?

A fungal infection that affects the intestines can cause serious damage to the health of the body. That is why it is so important to prevent its development. This can be helped by following some simple rules:

  • organization of the diet and the use of predominantly healthy food;
  • strengthening immunity;
  • minimizing the number of stressful situations;
  • taking medications only on the recommendation of a doctor.

How not to get lichen: tips for children and parents

Dr. Hooman-Khorasani
Posted in Uncategorized

The world around children is one big playground. Many toddlers just need to play with an attractive pile of earth, pet a cute yard cat, or swap a pacifier with their sandbox neighbor. All this can turn into a fungal skin disease, better known as “ringworm”.

Previously, the treatment of this disease was quite simple – the child was simply shaved off all the hair, the scalp was regularly treated with strong-smelling solutions and ointments. Now there are many more effective and humane treatment methods that allow you to preserve your hair. MedAboutMe talks about how to prevent infection, and what to do if you could not protect yourself from the fungus.

From cuddling a cat to the gym: where does lichen come from

Microsporia (the scientific name for ringworm) is the most common fungal infection in childhood. It is known to account for almost 90% of all skin lesions. The causative agent of the disease is fungi belonging to the genus Microsporum . They are carried by cats, dogs, rabbits and even monkeys, as well as other people. 

Ringworm is a highly contagious skin condition. 

Even a short-term contact with an infected animal or person is enough for the spores of the fungus to move from one child to another.

It is believed that microsporia is a disease of predominantly “kindergarten” and primary school age, but it is more and more common in infants. The most common risk factors for developing a fungal infection include:

  • regular visits to educational and entertainment institutions for children (kindergartens, swimming pools, game rooms, gyms, etc.);
  • violation of personal hygiene rules;
  • use of towels, clothes or bed linen common to the whole family;
  • decreased activity of the immune system;
  • stay in a summer camp;
  • the presence of a house of animals that often walk on the street.

The first signs of ringworm

The duration of the incubation period for the disease can be different: from 6 days to a month. 

Symptoms directly depend on where the inflammatory process is located. For example, if the smooth skin of the torso or face is affected , small, rounded pink spots appear. Their diameter does not exceed 1.5-3 cm.   

Over time, the center of the inflammatory element becomes lighter and begins to peel off. The edges rise above the skin surface in the form of a small ridge.

The rash is often sore and itchy, which is aggravated by contact with water. 

At night, the child combs and injures the spots: this contributes to the transfer of fungal spores and the appearance of new foci on previously healthy skin.

When the scalp is affected, the symptoms are much more pronounced. Several large foci appear at once (more than 2.5 cm in diameter): the hair in these places breaks off at a height of 3-7 mm, as a result of which the disease got its name. 

A slight peeling is found on the surface of the foci. The child constantly scratches his head, as a result of which night sleep suffers.

Why is the disease dangerous?

With weakened immunity, microsporia often turns into an infiltrative-suppurative form. Deep and painful abscesses appear, which open with the release of yellow-brown contents.

Sometimes abscesses form at the site of inflammatory foci – this can lead to a systemic inflammatory process. The body temperature rises, the lymph nodes increase, the general condition worsens. 

If microsporia is not treated in time, deep scars may remain at the site of the foci.

Ringworm treatment

To diagnose the disease, it is necessary to contact a dermatologist: the doctor will conduct an examination and make a scraping of the skin. This will help identify the pathogen. 

As additional methods, skin examination with a Wood lamp and inoculation of biological material on nutrient media can be used.

A child with a confirmed diagnosis cannot attend school, kindergarten or other institutions. He needs to be at home, excluding contact with other babies.   

Parents are advised to take all precautions so as not to get infected from their children.

For the treatment of milder forms of the disease, antifungal ointments and creams are used: they must be applied to the skin several times a day, and water should be avoided on the foci.

With massive lesions of the skin and scalp, systemic therapy is indicated. All antifungal medications are taken under medical supervision.

In 2020, scientists from the University of Toronto School of Medicine (Canada) published a paper comparing the effectiveness of several drugs in the treatment of various forms of microsporia. 

For skin lesions caused by Microsporum , griseofulvin was most effective . And with microsporia of the hairy part of the hair terbinafine coped better .

Prevention: can infection be prevented?

Ringworm is a medical condition that almost everyone can face. A guide for children and parents that will reduce the risks of contracting microsporia: 

  • use individual towels and clothes;
  • wearing shoes in public pools and showers;
  • do not lend toys and combs to other people;
  • avoid contact with stray animals;
  • regularly inspect pets (if they go outside) for ringworm foci;
  • do not injure the skin and keep it dry and clean;
  • regularly change bedding and underwear. 

Dermatological diseases: spots on the skin

Dr. Hooman-Khorasani
Posted in Uncategorized

Pink, inflamed or flaky spots on the skin not only look unaesthetic, but are also symptoms of some dermatological diseases. Today we will tell you about some of them.

Red spots on the skin: atopic dermatitis

Dermatological diseases can cause stains on human skin. One of them is atopic dermatitis.

As a rule, this disease has a chronic form of the course, with periods of exacerbation in the cold season and remission in the warm season (especially at sea). With this ailment, the human skin on the neck, knees, elbows, eyelids becomes covered with spots that have a red color and are accompanied by itching and flaking. The skin becomes dry, which is especially typical for children over the age of three and adults.

Atopic dermatitis is very common in young children. On the baby’s body, in particular on the neck, face and arms, red, flaky and often weeping spots form. Atopic dermatitis is often inherited, and it can manifest itself not only as skin rashes, but also:  

  • attacks of bronchial asthma;
  • the appearance of a symptom of allergic rhinitis;
  • tearing of the eyes, caused by an allergy to skin particles of dogs and cats, as well as flowering plants;  
  • the appearance of an allergy to medications or certain foods. 

In the course of treatment during an exacerbation, a hypoallergenic diet can be prescribed, antihistamines, topical glucocorticosteroids , pimerolimus and tacrolimus preparations can be prescribed .

Furthermore, in acute human skin requires daily care – warm shower using mild, skin is not dried soap, followed by application to the dry areas of emollients – emollients .

Seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp and body

This disease is characterized by the appearance of red scaly patches on the scalp, face, eyebrows, nose and nasolabial folds, chest and ears. In babies under one year old, seborrheic dermatitis manifests itself in the form of erythematous scaly patches in the area of ​​the body, arms and legs.

Yellow crusts are also a sign of this disease, the localization of which is the scalp. The main causative agents of seborrheic dermatitis are saprophytic yeast-like fungi belonging to the genus Malassezia .

In the process of treating seborrheic dermatitis, special creams and lotions are used that contain weak glucocorticosteroids , salicylic acid and agents with an antifungal effect.

Red spots on human skin: psoriasis

If this disease develops, the skin becomes covered with plaques in the form of red flaky, sometimes merging spots. The affected area includes the elbow and knee joints, lower back, buttocks and, in some cases, the scalp. In some cases, red spots with mild signs of peeling appear in the folds of the skin.

Psoriasis is treated by a dermatologist. As a rule, in this case, the use of special preparations for external use is prescribed, which include glucocorticosteroids , calcipotriol , salicylic acid. In case of insufficient effectiveness, a specialist can prescribe phototherapy procedures or systemic administration of the necessary drugs.

Pink spots: zoster Gibert

The main symptoms of this disease are round or oval light pink spots and papules with mild signs of peeling. They are located, as a rule, along the line of skin tension (on the back, this is similar to the arrangement of spruce branches). Some time before the appearance of intense rashes, a large plaque appears on the skin, which is called the maternal plaque.

The nature of this disease is not fully known. There is an assumption that herpesvirus of the seventh type becomes its causative agent. As a rule, treatment in such cases is not required. The rash goes away on its own within about two months.

Eczema coin-shaped

This disease manifests itself in the form of rounded spots with clear boundaries and covered with crusts and scales. The disease is accompanied by itching. The area of ​​localization of rashes is the dorsum of the hand, lower leg, skin of the buttocks and upper limbs. Sometimes dry skin, frequent contact with household chemicals, harmful substances and some food products (raw meat, fish, citrus juice) become provocateurs.

To treat eczema, your doctor prescribes the use of topical anti-inflammatory and emollients. With a large lesion, systemic antihistamines and hyposensitizing drugs may be recommended . In addition, the influence of provoking factors should be excluded.

Fungal skin lesions

As a result of a fungal infection, small red scaly patches appear on the skin. Over time, they take the form of red rings slightly rising above the surface with a lighter shade in the center. Diagnosis of fungal diseases is carried out by the method of laboratory examination of scrapings from the surface of scales treated with a solution of potassium hydroxide. In some cases, inoculation is done on the medium for fungal infection. Parasitic fungi of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are considered the causative agents of the disease . The disease is considered contagious and is transmitted through contact with sick people or animals.

In the course of treatment, systemic and local antifungal drugs are used. In addition, it is necessary to disinfect clothes and items that come into contact with problem skin.

Pityriasis versicolor

It is a common fungal infection caused by Piturosporum ovale . The main symptom of the disease is small round spots on the shoulders, neck and body of a person. Elements can merge, and as a result of exposure to sunlight, they become more noticeable, because the areas of the skin affected by this type of lichen do not tan.  

For treatment, topical preparations containing ketoconazole , selenium sulfide, zinc pyrithione , as well as antifungal ointments and creams containing salicylic acid are used.

How to properly care for your nails?

Dr. Hooman-Khorasani
Posted in Uncategorized

Nails require as much care as, for example, skin, teeth or hair. Toenails are no exception. Their condition indicates a person’s sense of style and hygiene habits. In addition, the texture, shape and length of nails can tell a lot about the health of their owners.

The need to prevent fungal nail infection

Correct and regular foot care is very important, because most of the time they are in shoes that are not always comfortable and spacious. And personal hygiene procedures are not complete without putting nails in order. Otherwise, you may encounter problems such as an ingrown toenail or fungus. Due to the appearance of fungal diseases, nails can become brittle, colorless and thick.

Some people do not attach importance to the prevention of infection with a fungal disease, and in vain. It is very easy to get infected with a fungus, but it will take a lot of time to get rid of it. Therefore, the prevention of fungal infection is a very important condition for nail hygiene.  

Regular cleansing as a basic rule of toenail care

The first condition for quality toenail care, as well as disease prevention, is regular hygiene – the feet should always be dry and clean. To do this, every evening for ten minutes, the feet are dipped in warm soapy water. It is best to take soap with a moisturizing ingredient such as lanolin. It is very good to use a decoction of chamomile or celandine for this. Then, using a soft brush, the feet are thoroughly washed, paying particular attention to cleaning the nails. This destroys bacteria that contribute to the spread of fungal infections.

After that, the legs and nails are dried with a soft napkin, not forgetting about the areas between the toes. Excess moisture in these areas can create a favorable environment for the development of fungal infections. Dry feet and nails are lubricated with moisturizer and put on cotton socks.

In addition to daily washing, it is necessary to periodically cleanse the heels and feet from dead cells. Exfoliating regularly will leave your feet soft and will also reduce the risk of calluses and calluses. In addition, it is recommended to periodically remove dead cells around the nails with a pumice stone.

Caution in the process of nail care

The second condition is correct nail clipping. To prevent ingrown toenails, toenails should be cut evenly without rounding the edges. But if this still happened, you should not make an independent attempt at treatment. For this, it will be better to seek the help of a doctor.

Use clean nail clippers or nail clippers to trim your nails. Smooth sharp edges after cutting with a file. This should be done in the same direction – from the edge of the nail to the center. As a result of filing in different directions, the structure of the nail plate can crumble and collapse. In addition, you should not cut your nails too short on your feet, as this can cause discomfort as a result of the pressure of the shoe on your toes.

Particular attention should be paid to the cuticles. Cutting them off is undesirable, because you can damage the skin and infect an infection. After a warm foot bath, the cuticle must be carefully pushed back with a wooden or bone stick.

In case of darkened nails, a bath with the addition of lemon juice (two tablespoons of juice per liter of water) or sea salt can help

Moisturizing the nails and cuticles is considered an important prerequisite for proper care . Regular use of a moisturizer allows nails to grow strong and beautiful. In addition, such procedures prevent nails from flaking, cracking and brittleness.  

Olive oil is also a good moisturizer. For better penetration into the tissues, it is recommended to apply it on the nail and cuticle area before going to bed. In addition to moisturizing, the oil helps soften nails and cuticles, as well as repair damaged tissues. Besides olive oil, you can use coconut or almond oil.

For safety reasons, the execution of a pedicure should be trusted only by an experienced master. Poorly processed tools are one of the main causes of fungal infections.

Choosing the right footwear for preventing nail fungus

To prevent the development of nail fungus, you need the right choice of shoes. The ideal option would be shoes with a wide toe that does not constrict your toes. It is advisable to avoid shoes that are too narrow or inappropriate in size. It is one of the factors of ingrown nails and the appearance of microcracks, which provoke the development of skin diseases. Injured tissues are defenseless against fungal infections.

It is not recommended for people who suffer from excessive sweating of the feet to wear sneakers or sneakers made of synthetic fabrics. Shoes should not impede normal air circulation, this will help keep your feet dry and prevent the occurrence of diseases such as nail fungus. Therefore, it is recommended to purchase shoes made from natural materials.

It is advisable to periodically disinfect your shoes and dry them for at least one day. Sneakers or boots should never be worn while still wet – this increases the chance of fungal infection. In such a case, it is advisable to have two pairs and wear them alternately.

You should not try on shoes on your bare feet in the store, and you should also resist the temptation to try on someone else’s shoes. Guests usually wear slippers of the owners, but they may contain microparticles of the fungus. Therefore, it is advisable to come to visit with your own change of shoes.

In addition to shoes, you should also choose good quality socks that absorb sweat . It is advisable to give preference to cotton socks. Do not forget that you need to change them daily. 

The danger of infection with a fungus also exists when visiting crowded places – swimming pools, gyms. Therefore, in order to prevent infection, it is not recommended to walk barefoot when visiting such places, it is advisable to always have rubber shoes.

If the nail plate begins to crumble, thicken or exfoliate, you should consult a dermatologist to exclude nail fungus or, if it appears, carry out the correct treatment.

Thrush in women: diagnosis and drugs for the disease

Dr. Hooman-Khorasani
Posted in Uncategorized

Today, thrush is one of the most common problems in gynecology, especially among women of reproductive age. This disease has an infectious nature and is caused by a specific opportunistic fungal flora. The clinical picture in this disease is quite characteristic, and therefore any difficulties in terms of diagnosis are extremely rare. In this article, we will try to understand the causes and methods of treating thrush.

What is thrush and why does it develop?

Thrush, or candidiasis, is a fungal disease caused by opportunistic flora. Most often, with such a pathological process, the vaginal mucosa is affected. However, sometimes specific inflammatory foci can be found on the skin, oral mucosa and even in the intestines. It is worth noting that men can also experience this disease, but much less often.

In this article, we will talk in more detail about the most common form of candidiasis – vaginal. As statistics show, it accounts for about 30-45% of all infectious lesions of the vagina. According to recent reports, up to 75% of women have experienced thrush at least once in their lives. Half of them had repeated episodes of this disease, and in 8%, vaginal candidiasis acquired a recurrent course.

Thrush is most often diagnosed in women of reproductive age. Before the formation of menstrual function and during menopause, this pathology is extremely rare. It is noteworthy that among pregnant women, the prevalence of vaginal candidiasis increases 2-3 times.

First of all, let’s talk about the classification of this disease. It comes in three main forms:

  • Asymptomatic – there are no clinical manifestations;
  • Acute – the duration of the pathological process does not exceed 2 months;
  • Chronic recurrent – the disease lasts more than 2 months.

As we said, thrush is a fungal disease. It is caused by conditionally pathogenic flora belonging to the genus Candida . To date, more than 190 species of such fungi are known, of which more than 27 species live on human mucous membranes. The most common causative agent (in about 80% of cases) is Candida albicans . According to various sources, such fungi are found in 10-17% of non-pregnant women on the mucous membrane of the vagina, in 20-60% of people on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. However, it should be noted that clinical manifestations are not always present.

One of the most important predisposing factors for the development of candidiasis is a decrease in the level of immune defense. A decrease in immunity, for example, against the background of long-term use of antibacterial drugs, leads to an active reproduction of the fungal flora, followed by the development of an inflammatory reaction. Hormonal imbalances can also contribute to the onset of this disease, which explains its prevalence among pregnant women.  

It is worth noting that in recent years, more and more atypical, treatment-resistant forms of vaginal candidiasis have been diagnosed.

Symptoms of vaginal candidiasis

The severity of symptoms in this pathological process can vary significantly in each case. As we have already said, with asymptomatic carriage, there are no clinical manifestations.

The acute form of thrush is accompanied by rather vivid symptoms. First of all, these include abundant discharge, itching in the genital area. The discharge has a thick cheesy consistency and a grayish-white color. On examination, you can find that the mucous membrane is hyperemic and edematous, there are whitish foci on it, reaching up to several millimeters in diameter. In the acute course of this disease, there is a dense attachment of the plaque to the underlying tissues; when it is removed, eroded surfaces remain . Complaints of severe itching, aggravated in the premenstrual period, are mandatory. 

The clinical picture in the chronic form is not so pronounced. It includes not abundant cheesy discharge, sometimes they are completely absent, moderate redness of the mucous membrane, the appearance of scanty films and dry erosion. 

With a long course of this disease, there is a high risk of spreading the infection to other parts of the genitourinary system. Often, vaginal candidiasis is complicated by secondary damage to the cervix or urethra. During pregnancy, this pathological process can cause its spontaneous interruption.  

Diagnosis of thrush, as a rule, does not cause any difficulties. First of all, it is necessary to conduct an objective examination. Additionally, microscopy of a smear from the genitals is carried out. It is possible to isolate the infectious flora using culture .

This disease is treated with antifungal drugs. In mild cases, local forms of antimycotics are used , and in severe cases, systemic therapy. In parallel, local anti-inflammatory drugs, immunomodulators and vitamins are prescribed.

In 2017, the results of the work of a group of scientists from Irkutsk State Medical University were published. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of the azole drug fenticonazole in the local therapy of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis. The patients received fenticonazole 600 mg in a vaginal capsule once, which led to clinical and laboratory recovery on day 4 in 47% of patients with acute uncomplicated candidiasis.

Prevention of vaginal candidiasis

The principles of prevention boil down to the careful use of antibiotics and other immunosuppressive drugs, avoidance of hypothermia, timely correction of hormonal imbalance, and so on.

Find and neutralize: how to prevent fungus from ruining the summer

Dr. Hooman-Khorasani
Posted in Uncategorized

Mycoses (fungal skin lesions), as a rule, are activated precisely in the summer. Moreover, both children and adults are susceptible to them. Such diseases cause a lot of inconvenience and do not go away without special treatment. Why do fungi love warm weather so much?

Symptoms of superficial mycoses

According to the World Health Organization, 20% of all inhabitants of the planet are affected by various fungal diseases. Moreover, almost every person has suffered a similar disease at least once in his life. The most common are superficial mycoses – epidermophytosis (fungal diseases of the feet) and onychomycosis (nail fungus).

Typical symptoms of the disease are:

  • Itching and burning on the skin between the toes.
  • Peeling, often with redness.
  • Cracked feet.
  • Rough skin.
  • The formation of a zone with fine bubbles.
  • Compaction of the nail or, conversely, the nail plate is too thin.
  • Change in nail color to whitish, grayish, yellow.
  • Splitting nails, uneven edges.
  • Nails stop growing to the nail bed.

Reasons for the development of fungal infections

Spores of pathogenic fungi surround us everywhere: in public places, on public transport, on the beaches and even at home. Moreover, some of the species, such as the genus Candida , can generally be part of a healthy microflora. Therefore, in order for an infection to develop, simply contact with the fungus is not enough. Dermatologists identify factors that contribute to the consolidation and growth of the fungus:  

  • A humid environment (this is precisely the reason for the prevalence of fungi in baths and saunas).
  • Cracks, wounds on the skin.
  • Skin lesions. For example, sunburn, irritation, diaper rash.
  • Weakened immune system

And all these conditions are often created precisely in the summer, warm season. The skin sweats actively, especially in the area of ​​folds. In addition, due to open shoes, various dirt, small grains of sand can get on the feet, which, when walking, injure the epidermis. The sun combined with a light breeze can irritate the skin, and diaper rash often occurs due to heat.

Even the Pityrosporum ovale fungus , which is the main cause of dandruff, is often active in the summer. It is during this season that the sebaceous glands may work harder because of the high air temperature, strong sunlight or frequent soaking of hair (for example, at sea). And this creates a favorable environment for the spread and growth of the fungus.

With regard to immunity, it is generally accepted that its weakening occurs in autumn and spring. However, in summer, conditions often arise under which the protective functions of the body are significantly reduced. So, for example, a vacation in a different, unusual for the body, climatic zone can cause a temporary deterioration in immunity.

Children’s fungal diseases

Children are most susceptible to mycoses – in pediatric dermatology, fungal diseases account for 37-40% of all diseases. This is due, first of all, to the characteristics of the child’s skin. She differs from an adult in the following characteristics:

  • Hydrophilicity – the ability to better absorb and retain water on the surface.
  • Increased vascularization – proliferation of blood vessels.
  • Reduced bactericidal activity of the sebaceous and sweat glands – here children often have various infections.
  • Thin and delicate epidermis that is easily injured.
  • Exposure to sunburn, various irritations, etc.

Children’s diseases of a fungal nature are often associated with the imperfection of the baby’s immune system, which is just being formed during this period. In addition, it is for childhood that frequent respiratory viral infections are characteristic, which also worsen the body’s resistance.

In the summer, the risk factors for mycoses in children become much greater. For example, spores of the fungus Malassezia furfur , the causative agent of varicolored lichen, are often found in the sand .

Treatment of fungus on the skin: advice from a dermatologist

If symptoms characteristic of fungal infections appear, in no case should you self-medicate. This is due, first of all, to the fact that only a doctor can make an accurate diagnosis based on the results of examinations. After all, similar skin lesions can be caused by completely different diseases – psoriasis, neurodermatitis, vitiligo, eczema and others. Treating such diseases with antifungal agents is not only ineffective, but also dangerous, since some of them can provoke exacerbations.

If the diagnosis is made, treatment can be prescribed in two ways:

  • Only local preparations – ointments, creams, emulsions. Among the most common: terbinafine , naftifine , clotrimazole , miconazole , sulfuric tar and salicylic ointment. 
  • Local and systemic drugs. The second are added to the course of treatment if the mycoses are extensive, the disease is started. Among these drugs, the most commonly prescribed are: fluconazole, griseofulvin , itraconazole .  

Be prepared that the treatment may take a long time. For example, with severe damage to the nail plate, the course of medication ends only when the nail has completely grown back. This may take several months. Foot fungus is treated for 2-4 weeks.

Along with medications, therapy also includes preventive measures that prevent mycosis from spreading.

Prevention of infections in summer

The main measures for the prevention of fungal infections are as follows:

  • Strictly follow the rules of hygiene – use only your own towels, washcloths, etc.
  • Wear flip-flops on beaches and public pools.
  • Periodically wash summer shoes and slippers with soap.
  • Give preference to open shoes made from natural materials – fabrics, leather. Try not to wear sneakers and other similar shoes in hot weather.
  • Monitor your diet. Too fatty foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks can provoke increased sweating. In addition, these foods can reduce immunity.
  • Everything, even small wounds, should be washed and treated with an antiseptic.
  • It is best to avoid prolonged exposure to the sun to prevent skin burns.
  • Trim your toenails often.

In the summer, it is useful to make foot baths with decoctions of a string, chamomile, celandine. If there is a risk of infection with a fungus, for example, on vacation, you can use tar soap, special pharmaceutical sprays for treating feet. With any suspicion of mycosis, an urgent need to consult a dermatologist – an unreleased disease is treated much easier and faster.

Fungal sore throat: features and treatment

Dr. Hooman-Khorasani
Posted in Uncategorized

Most often, sore throat is caused by bacteria: staphylococci and streptococci. But sometimes fungi, most often from the genus Candida , become the cause of the disease . Treatment of each type of sore throat requires a special approach.     

Causative agents of the disease

Candida fungi are always present in the body. They become pathogenic only if special conditions are created for this. It is considered to be the provoking factors: 

  • insufficient maturity of the immune system in young children; 
  • state of immunodeficiency;
  • chronic diseases that weaken the body;
  • diabetes mellitus and other diseases of the endocrine system; 
  • treatment with antibiotics, immunosuppressants, steroids, as well as chemotherapy for oncological diseases;  
  • alcohol abuse, heavy smoking.

Symptoms of fungal sore throat

In general, fungal angina proceeds in a milder form, does not develop so quickly. Symptoms, usual for sore throats, are less pronounced , the temperature does not rise so much. Fungal sore throats are characterized by:     

  • moderate weakness;
  • headache ; 
  • temperature rise to 37.5 ° -38 °; 
  • discomfort when swallowing, sore throat; 
  • swollen lymph nodes.

On the swollen, reddened tonsils, you can see a yellowish or whitish coating, similar to particles of cottage cheese. If you try to remove this plaque with a cotton swab, you will find a shiny, dark red surface underneath . Sometimes, after removing the plaque, a bleeding wound surface remains.    

Plaque can spread to the tissues surrounding the tonsils: uvula, pharynx, soft palate. 

Treatment of fungal sore throat

Treatment for fungal sore throat includes ingestion of antifungal drugs, gargling, or inhalation. To rinse use Miramistin , Chlorhexidine, decametoxine , Geksoral and other drugs.      

During treatment, you should avoid eating sugar and sweets.   

Only a doctor can correctly determine the type of sore throat. You cannot self-medicate, since each type of disease requires a special approach. 

Fungal and bacterial sinusitis

Dr. Hooman-Khorasani
Posted in Uncategorized

Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses is called sinusitis. Depending on the type of pathogen, the disease can be fungal or bacterial.

Fungal sinusitis

Fungal sinusitis is a fungal infection of the maxillary sinus. Domestic plants, among other things, can provoke the appearance of the disease. The fact is that certain indoor flowers release microscopic spores into the air, which can easily enter the body by inhalation, causing unpleasant consequences.  

If the immune system is not weakened, the body can protect a person from inflammation. This happens in most cases. However, with reduced immunity, diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary insufficiency, etc., the risk of infection with a fungus increases.

One of the frequent causative agents of the disease is a mold from the genus Aspergillus – Aspergillus niger (Aspergillus black). This is one of the most dangerous fungi, which is also colloquially called black mold. It is present in various places – flowers, soil, often grows on walls in damp, poorly ventilated rooms.

Often, when the fungus enters the body, edema of the mucous membrane and allergies appear. In this case, the sinus fistula narrows, and mucus begins to accumulate in it. The presence of mucus and fungus causes infection and inflammation. The patient may have dark discharge from the nose. The most dangerous is the invasive introduction of mold into the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

By the way, in addition to plants and soil, the fungus can also be present inside children’s rubber toys, which are often lying around in bathrooms. Moisture ingress through shallow openings and poor ventilation leads to the growth of mold in them.

Sinusitis treatment

As a rule, the treatment of sinusitis caused by a fungal infection is carried out with the use of antifungal drugs. Taking antibiotics in this case is inappropriate. With a fungal infection, they simply will not help. You also need to understand that the destruction of bacteria leads to an imbalance in the body between the bacterial and fungal flora in favor of the latter, and this increases the risk of developing a fungal infection.

In some cases, removal of fungal growths in the maxillary sinuses can be performed surgically. For this, an endoscope is used – a device at the end of which a miniature television camera is fixed.

Fungal infection of the maxillary sinus requires immediate medical attention. Lack of emergency care, especially with invasive mycosis, can give complications to the eye and brain. The growth of the fungus occurs very quickly.

A clean house is a guarantee of health

It is important to inspect your home for the presence of fungus. Mold often appears on the walls, ceiling, floor, under wallpaper, etc. If traces of it are found, it is necessary to treat the affected surfaces with special compounds. Currently, there is a wide selection of antifungal agents in hardware stores that do an excellent job.

If the fungus is found under wallpaper or other non-base coatings, they should be removed and the surface treated. And only after that you can carry out a new finish. Now on sale there are finishing materials (wallpaper, etc.) with an antifungal coating, as well as household and repair consumables (adhesives, paints, etc.) containing an antifungal agent.

By the way, contrary to popular belief, fungi do not live in water. But for their existence they need a nutrient medium and moisture. Therefore, they often appear on damp wooden walls or in the external ear canal (with prolonged moisture in it), for example.

Bacterial sinusitis

The development of bacterial sinusitis takes place against the background of a microbial infection entering the sinus. There are many reasons for the appearance of an acute bacterial process in the maxillary sinus. Inflammation can be provoked by:

  • Inaccurate filling of the upper jaw tooth with damage to the maxillary sinus.
  • Polyps.
  • Narrowing of the anastomoses.

However, one of the most common causes of bacterial sinusitis is a runny nose. Normally, the contents of the paranasal sinuses flow freely into the nasal cavity and out. During a runny nose, inflammation occurs and the mucous membrane swells. In this case, the sinus fistula narrows (or even overlaps). Mucus begins to accumulate in it and bacteria actively multiply.  

Typical Symptoms of Sinusitis

  • Pain when tapping on the face – in places where the sinuses are located.
  • Increased body temperature.
  • Headache . 
  • Purulent discharge from the nose.
  • Loss of smell.

Lack of treatment can lead to serious complications, including the breakthrough of purulent contents from the sinus into the brain.

How to eliminate inflammation?

To treat sinusitis caused by a bacterial infection, your doctor may prescribe:

  • Antibiotic use.
  • Nasal drops with hormone.
  • Rinsing the nose with saline.

If sinusitis is chronic, you need to find out the cause of its appearance. It could be an infection that doesn’t respond to antibiotic treatment. In this case, the correct seeding is selected.

If the disease arises due to any anatomical problem (a crooked nasal septum or narrow sinus fistulas), sinusitis is surgically treated. In the first case, the nasal septum is leveled, in the second – the excretory ducts are expanded – endoscopically with further washing of the dilated anastomoses with an antibacterial drug.

By the way, the use of punctures for the treatment of sinusitis is an outdated procedure. Today, a new method is increasingly used – balloon sinusoplasty . Treatment is carried out under local anesthesia without anesthesia.

The essence of the method is as follows. Through the nasal cavity, a thinnest conductor is introduced into the affected sinus, at the end of which there is a deflated balloon and a small television camera. When the probe enters the maxillary sinus, the balloon is inflated, which expands the anastomosis and allows the contents to flow freely outward. Finally, the sinus cavity is flushed with antibiotics.

After treatment, the doctor may prescribe the patient a short nasal lavage (for example, saline with the addition of one or another antibiotic). You can wash yourself at home.