In a broad sense, dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin, most often due to exposure to chemical, biological or physical factors. The disease is characterized by the appearance of redness, inflammation, itching, burning, blisters, fever of the affected area. The intensity of the symptoms depends on the severity and type of the disease.
Varieties of dermatitis
For successful treatment, it is necessary to determine the type of disease. There are 4 types:
Seborrheic dermatitis most often appears on oily skin and is a rash with an oily sheen and jagged edges. Usually rashes are localized in the scalp.
Causes of dermatitis
First of all, it should be said that dermatitis is not a life-threatening disease and is not transmitted from person to person. Factors of the appearance of pathology can be divided into exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal).
Exogenous factors include:
- mechanical: friction and pressure;
- physical: exposure to temperatures, sunlight, x-rays and radioactive radiation;
- biological: contact with plants, bacteria, viruses, fungi;
- chemical: acids, alkalis, salts of alkali metals and mineral acids.
Endogenous factors are:
- metabolic disorders, hypo – and beriberi;
- diseases of the endocrine system;
- reaction to medications;
- reaction to food;
Regardless of the cause, all varieties of dermatitis are characterized by a clear outline of the skin lesion.
Symptoms of dermatitis
Symptoms of the disease have 3 stages. The first (acute) stage is characterized by itching and inflammation of the skin, the appearance of blisters filled with liquid. The second (subacute) stage occurs if no assistance has been provided previously. It is characterized by the formation of crusts and flaking of skin scales. In the third (chronic) stage , the skin thickens and the affected areas become dark pink in color.
The affected areas can become both very sensitive and lose sensitivity.
In some cases of toxic dermatitis, there is a general deterioration in well-being, headaches, loss of strength, but most often the disease is limited to skin manifestations.
Diagnosis of dermatitis
Diagnosis of dermatitis usually includes:
- visual examination of the skin;
- scraping from the affected area of the skin and subsequent histological or bacteriological analysis;
- urine and blood tests;
- an immunological study that detects an allergen;
- if necessary, a skin biopsy may be ordered.
The diagnosis is made by a dermatologist or an allergist.
Treatment of dermatitis
Treatment of dermatitis is a conservative therapy. In the acute stage , glucocorticosteroid ointments may be prescribed . In the second and third stages , moisturizing and regenerating ointments, soothing gels and other products containing components of natural origin are used to get rid of symptoms.
antibiotic or antifungal treatment (taking pills, using ointments) is prescribed under the supervision of a doctor .
With allergic dermatitis , a special diet is prescribed , excluding possible allergens. It should be maintained throughout life.
In the fight against atopic dermatitis (neurodermatitis), self-control is important in order to overcome the desire to comb the affected area. A patient with this diagnosis may benefit from psychotherapy sessions .
Prevention of dermatitis
Prevention of psoriasis involves several factors, depending on the type of disease. Methods may include following a diet, wearing gloves while doing housework, sun protection, wearing clothing made from natural fabrics, regularly moisturizing the skin and taking vitamins, etc.