Allergic dermatitis is a dermatological disease that occurs when a certain substance is exposed to the body.
Pathology can manifest itself at any age
Characteristic features of allergic dermatitis:
- clear specificity – the manifestation of an allergic reaction only to a specific substance to which the body is hypersensitive;
- delayed reaction – inflammatory processes appear some time after contact with the allergen.
– There is such a myth that people suffering from allergies are more likely to get infectious diseases, because they have weaker immunity. This is a false judgment. Resistance to many infections in a person with a tendency to allergies can be absolutely the same as in a healthy person. There is no direct link between anti- infective protection and allergies.
Firsakova Svetlana Sergeevna, dermatovenereologist,
Melanoma clinic unit Moscow
Causes of allergic dermatitis
The cause of allergic dermatitis in different people is some kind of individual allergen: it can be a food product, a component of household chemicals, jewelry, clothing fabric, and much more.
Quite often, allergic dermatitis is diagnosed in people suffering from chronic allergies, bronchial asthma, and urticaria. There is also a hereditary predisposition to the development of the disease.
Psycho-emotional stress is unable to provoke an allergic reaction, but they can significantly worsen the patient’s condition.
Depending on the allergen, there are several types of allergic dermatitis:
- Toxicoderma – an allergen (most often a drug) enters the body through the organs of the digestive system, respiratory tract, with intravenous, subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. In severe cases, Lyell’s syndrome develops – a life-threatening condition in which extensive inflammation of the skin is observed, followed by its exfoliation. Treatment of Lyell’s syndrome is carried out in the intensive care unit. A specific type of toxicoderma is fixed erythema. This is the body’s response to taking certain medications (most often containing a sulfanilamide group – Baralgin, Biseptol). It is characterized by the appearance of rashes on the same areas of the skin.
- Phytodermatitis – pollen and plant sap act as an allergen.
- Contact – manifests itself in direct contact with the allergen (cosmetics, household chemicals, jewelry, synthetics).
Symptoms of allergic dermatitis
Clinical manifestations of allergic dermatitis are clearly visible in the photo (they are similar to signs of eczema) – large red spots covered with small bubbles. When the bubbles burst, weeping is formed . After the inflammatory process subsides, the skin becomes covered with crusts formed from the drying fluid and dying tissues. Another symptom is severe itching, which continues even during sleep.
In the chronic form of the disease, peeling and lichenification are observed – the skin thickens, the pattern intensifies, pigmentation is disturbed.
Treatment of allergic dermatitis
Before prescribing treatment, it is necessary to make a correct diagnosis and establish the cause of allergic dermatitis. To this end, the doctor examines the patient, studies the history of the development of the disease, sends him for a blood test, and conducts allergic tests.
In some cases, it is enough to eliminate the allergen to get rid of the problem. Otherwise, the doctor will prescribe medications.
How to treat allergic dermatitis? The basis of therapy is external anti-inflammatory and moisturizing drugs, as well as antihistamines and desensitizing agents that eliminate unpleasant symptoms. Duration of admission – from two weeks to 4 months.
Systemic therapy includes the use of antihistamines. Depending on the severity of the disease, the presence / absence of some chronic diseases, first-generation drugs (often cause drowsiness) or more modern drugs that lack a sedative effect may be prescribed. Usually, drug treatment of allergic dermatitis also includes the use of enterosorbents that remove the allergen from the digestive tract.
In addition to general treatment, local treatment is also necessary. The most commonly used hormone -containing ointments and creams. They quickly relieve inflammation and redness, relieve swelling and itching. But they can be used in short courses, usually no more than 2-3 weeks. With longer use, some undesirable side effects may develop.
In the case of a longer course of the disease, as well as to reduce the number of drugs, dermatologists supplement the treatment with non-hormonal local preparations. Losterin cream , made on the basis of deresined naftalan . It has a desensitizing, exfoliating and antimicrobial effect, relieves inflammation, eliminates pain and itching. Thanks to almond oil and D- panthenol , it promotes cell regeneration and wound healing.
In the stage of weeping , zinc-naphthalan paste Losterin will provide effective assistance . It has drying, astringent, adsorbing, disinfecting, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and antipruritic properties. In addition, the paste softens the stratum corneum, which facilitates the penetration of active substances deep into the skin.
Preparations of the Losterin line (cream, paste, shower gel, shampoo, cream-soap) do not contain hormones, dyes and fragrances. Therefore, they are recommended for daily skin care, as they do not cause withdrawal symptoms and side effects. These drugs help prevent symptoms of the disease and allow you to prolong the period of remission.
The manufacturer strictly controls the quality of drugs at all stages, which ensures their high efficiency and safety.
Additionally, you can make lotions with a decoction of horsetail, string, calendula, bay leaf, chamomile flowers, marshmallow root, tea leaves. Lotions cool and soothe the skin, dry and disinfect wounds. Baths have a similar effect.
Effectively complement the medical treatment of physiotherapy (strengthen the immune system, increase the body’s resistance to allergens):
- laser therapy – relieves swelling, stimulates wound healing, restores metabolism;
- infrared radiation – eliminates peeling and weakens lichenization ;
- sun and sea baths – saturate the skin with useful substances, normalize metabolism.
An important component of treatment is diet therapy. The diet is selected individually based on the results of allergy tests . In most cases , whole milk, eggs, sauces, seafood, fish, mushrooms, citrus fruits, strawberries, raspberries, honey, sweets, pastries, chocolate, canned food, seasonings are excluded from the diet of patients .
The basis of the menu should be rice, buckwheat and oatmeal, light broths, low-fat dairy products, poultry meat, lean beef, yellow and green vegetables and fruits. Groats before cooking must be soaked in cold water for 8-10 hours. You need to cook the broth in 2 stages: the first broth is drained, as it contains allergens, and the second, less saturated, is used for food.
The way food is prepared is also important. You should eat boiled and steamed foods, fried, baked and smoked foods can cause an exacerbation of the disease.
You need to drink plain and mineral water, weak green tea without sugar, a decoction of string, chamomile flowers, licorice roots, blackcurrant bark and red viburnum. It is better to give up coffee, cocoa, black tea, milkshakes, fruit juices, spirits, carbonated water.