It is very important for a woman of any age to get satisfaction from her reflection in the mirror. And since wrinkles are the main enemy of a wonderful appearance, you need to know how to deal with them. If you wish, you can always look seven to eight years younger than your age.
What are wrinkles?
Wrinkles are grooves and folds of skin that occur on the face, neck, arms and other parts of the body. Already at about 25 years old, the biological process of aging of the skin begins, it loses its elasticity, the ability to retain moisture, the first wrinkles appear.
There are several reasons why wrinkles occur:
excessive tension of the facial muscles of the face or its increased facial expressions (squinting eyes, wrinkling forehead, grimacing);
improper skin care (especially sun exposure).
The development of wrinkles occurs in several stages.
At the first stage, superficial, barely noticeable, interrupted grooves appear in the face between the eyes, between the mouth and nose, disappearing when the skin is pulled.
In the second stage, surface continuous grooves appear, which straighten when the skin is tensioned.
On the third – persistent deep wrinkles are formed – grooves on the forehead, neck and around the mouth, which do not disappear when the skin is pulled, to which folds of the skin on the face are attached at the fourth and final stage.
Wrinkle development mechanism
Our skin is designed so that the collagen and elastin fibers form a dense mesh. Fibers have the ability to absorb moisture and swell, so young skin is so elastic. Over the years, the synthesis of these important proteins and fiber renewal ceases, and the remaining fibers “age”, intramolecular bonds are broken, which causes the loss of moisture retention capacity and the skin becomes like a baked apple.
Free radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals – molecular particles, which are toxic by-products of the activity of any human cells, have a significant impact on the aging process. They have a free electron on the outer electron shell, which makes the particles extremely unstable; due to this, they very easily enter into chemical reactions.
Free radicals are opposed by a unique protective system created by the body – the system of antioxidants. Antioxidants are molecules that can block free radicals, giving them the necessary additional electron. The strongest natural antioxidants in the human body are: beta-carotene (provitamin A), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherol (vitamin E), some enzymes and amino acids, as well as B, K vitamins, minerals and trace elements: magnesium, selenium , copper, zinc, chrome. In addition, the defenders of our body from the action of free radicals are all the same vitamins, minerals and trace elements found in foods: avocados, sweet peppers, berries, melons, spinach, kale, pumpkin, pineapples, tomatoes, salmon fish (fresh grilled or boiled).
Modern non-surgical cosmetology is very rich in various methods for the correction of wrinkles.
The most simple and popular are various types of peels. (From the English. Peeling, exfoliation, exfoliation). This is the name of the procedure for removing keratinized particles of the upper layer of the skin, which stimulates the growth of new cells, directly affects the structure of the skin and increase its elasticity. Peeling also prepares the skin for the perception of masks and creams.
Facial peeling is divided into mechanical, chemical and physical.
Mechanical peeling (mechanical exfoliation of the stratum corneum due to friction) is performed both manually and using special equipment. Superficial mechanical peeling is carried out using scrubs, gouges, etc.
Scrubs are cosmetics that contain solid particles. With their help, during the application and subsequent massage of the skin, dead cells are removed.
Homage is a cream paste containing fatty compositions, waxes and minerals, such as white clay. After applying homage to the skin of the face and massage, a soft crust forms, which when removed rolls off along with dead cells. These tools can be used at home.
Middle and deep peels are carried out in beauty salons or clinics.
Median mechanical peeling or microdermabrasion is carried out by applying fine aluminum particles to the face under pressure. The flow of aluminum microcrystals knocks out particles of the skin, stimulates its blood supply, the synthesis of collagen and elastin, and increases its elasticity. Microdermabrasion is used in combination with special cosmetics that accelerate the growth of epidermal cells. The procedure is repeated after 8-12 days, the course is 8-10 sessions.
Deep mechanical exfoliation or dermal deformity is a surgical procedure performed under local or general anesthesia. It is used to eliminate various skin defects in the form of scars, spots, fine wrinkles, etc. A special device with a milling cutter removes the surface layer of the skin with all the existing defects, after which the skin is updated. At first, the pink color of young skin remains, which gradually acquires the usual color.
After the manipulations, the use of alcohol lotions is contraindicated; sun exposure; Do not be near open flames.
Superficial and moderate treatment involves the use of protective cosmetics with sun protection factor and panthenol. Deep exposure, reaching the basal layer of the epidermis and papillary dermis, requires the application of a hemostatic ointment and a special dressing on the face for 6-8 weeks. After the procedure, swelling of the facial tissues occurs. It is eliminated using diuretics or physiotherapeutic procedures.
Contraindications to mechanical peeling are as follows: acute inflammatory skin diseases; herpes ; chronic skin diseases in the acute stage; tuberculosis; the presence of multiple dilated capillaries of the skin – telangiectasia; a tendency to form rough scars.
Chemical peeling is performed using chemicals: enzymes (substances that can destroy organic tissue and accelerate the course of biochemical reactions) from papaya juice or pineapple, fruit acids (glycolic, salicylic, retinoic, etc.). This procedure is suitable for oily skin and is carried out in beauty salons. There is a breakdown of the bonds between the cells, their burn with subsequent exfoliation, which stimulates the reproduction and growth of new cells. Depending on the strength of the substances, the effect may be superficial, or it may be deeper.
Immediately before the procedure, the skin is cleaned with a solution for degreasing. A solution of the substance is applied with an even layer, and after a few minutes – a solution-neutralizer.
After the procedure, the skin usually turns red, swelling is noted, but most often these phenomena pass on their own. A moisturizing cream is applied to the skin to eliminate the feeling of tightening the skin and preventing the loss of fluid. Crusts arising after peeling cannot be removed on their own – they must be lubricated with cream.
Complications: foci of hyperpigmentation – patches of skin of a darker color; exacerbation of skin infection may occur.
Physical peeling. This group of peelings includes ultrasonic and laser peelings. They are held in beauty salons and clinics.
Ultrasonic peeling is a hardware procedure for surface grinding of the skin. An ultrasonic wave when passing through the skin causes vibrations of the cells, as a result, the bonds between them are weakened, which leads to their exfoliation.
The big advantage of ultrasonic peeling is the ability to use it at any time of the year, as well as the fact that allergic reactions are completely excluded. This procedure is not traumatic, and there are practically no complications after it.
Contraindications are acute inflammatory skin diseases, herpes, malignant neoplasms, benign neoplasms with a tendency to progression.
The basis of laser peeling is the use of laser radiation, that is, a ray of light of a certain wavelength. When the energy of the laser beam is absorbed by the cell, the evaporation of intracellular water and cell death occurs, followed by its exfoliation. It is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia, followed by the patient staying in the hospital.
The next way to combat wrinkles is a manual massage of the face and neck. Massage movements stimulate the secretory function of the sebaceous and sweat glands, improve the flow of arterial blood, the outflow of venous blood and lymph, accelerate metabolic processes, saturate the skin with oxygen, which leads to an increase in its elasticity.
Manual massage regulates muscle tone: weakened muscles are activated, and tense muscles are relaxed. A positive result can be seen immediately after the first session. There are many techniques for manual massage, as a rule, they are multidirectional – depending on the existing problems of the skin of the face. Contraindications are pustular and fungal skin diseases, damage to the skin in the area of exposure. There are practically no complications after the massage, provided that contraindications are taken into account.
To date, injection methods for cosmetic correction of wrinkles are the most effective. The most physiological methods include injections of botulinum toxin, preparations of hyaluronic acid, collagen, the introduction of drugs that fight wrinkles with the help of mesotherapy. I must say right away that mesotherapy is just a way of introducing drugs in small doses into the middle layer of the skin – the dermis, but at the same time a very effective way to eliminate wrinkles, since it is possible to deliver the active substance exactly to the target.
Mesotherapy is performed using disposable syringes with a thin small needle or special syringe guns. The main thing is to choose the right drugs for working with your face. And there are a great many of them: vitamins and minerals; organic acids (glycolic, pyruvic), restoring the structure of the skin; extracts of animal origin (collagen, elastin, etc.); extracts of medicinal plants (ginkgo, biloba, witch hazel, clover, artichoke), etc.
The advantages of the method include: the locality of the drug at the injection site; duration of saving results; lack of age restrictions; the ability to chip off any problem area with a medical cocktail; carrying out the procedure once a week. The disadvantages of the method: soreness; possible bruising after injection; the procedure is not recommended for menstruation or immediately after surgery. Complications: the development of allergic reactions to drugs; inflammation at the injection site.
Contraindications to the procedure: acute inflammatory skin diseases; herpes in the acute stage; exacerbation of chronic skin diseases; the presence of stones in the gallbladder (some medicinal substances can provoke the movement of stones and the occurrence of severe pain at the same time); diseases accompanied by coagulation disorders.
Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX, DISPORT. Drugs are injected and block the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles, as a result of which they are not reduced. This leads to a decrease in facial expressions and to the gradual smoothing of wrinkles.
The drug begins to act on average after 7-14 days. The effect of its action persists on average for 6 months, after which it is necessary to repeat the procedure. Each new injection course requires a smaller amount of the drug used, which, apparently, is associated with the disappearance of old nerve connections, and reflects the adaptation of facial muscles to new, changed conditions. Complications of the procedure: with excessive administration of the drug, the muscle relaxes excessively, as a result of which the angle of the mouth or eyelid may drop. The effect of the drug is reversible: restoration of appearance occurs after 1-2 months.
Hyaluronic acid preparations. Hyaluronic acid is normally part of healthy skin and provides for its sufficient saturation with water, as well as volume, density and elasticity. During aging, the content of hyaluronic acid in the skin is significantly reduced, which leads to wrinkles. The drug is injected into folds and wrinkles with pinpoint injections. The procedure takes about 30 minutes, and the effect is visible instantly. Anesthesia is usually not required, but at the request of the patient local anesthesia is performed. Within one to two days after the procedure, slight swelling or redness at the injection site may be visible. Introduced into the skin, hyaluronic acid gradually decomposes, and the released molecular bonds reattach water, which maintains the original volume. After 3-4 months, the material is completely destroyed and re-introduction is required. Hyaluronic acid can be used not only for the correction of wrinkles, but also for changing the shape and volume of the lips, correction of scars. This tool can be used in complex treatment in combination with botulinum toxin.
Collagen Therapy With the depletion of skin’s own collagen, wrinkles appear, so the introduction of collagen from the outside gives a good aesthetic effect. Purified bovine collagen is injected into the dermis with a syringe along the entire wrinkle or fold with several injections. If necessary, the procedure is repeated after two weeks.
Implantable collagen is rapidly destroyed, and after 3-4 months re-administration of the drug is required. The disadvantage of collagen therapy is the protein nature of the administered substance, which may lead to the development of allergic reactions. To avoid this, a sensitivity test is initially performed. 0.1 ml of the drug is injected into the skin of the forearm, and after 2-4 weeks, the results are evaluated by the doctor and the patient according to a specific test. If the test for sensitivity is negative, then collagen therapy can be performed. Contraindications: intolerance to beef, kidney disease – glomerulonephritis, exacerbation of herpes. Side effects: dizziness, nausea, joint pain, allergic rash, bruising arising from injections, crusts. Complications: scar formation.
Modern methods of fighting wrinkles are quite diverse, but although the skin responds to the care and care that you generously pour on it from the outside, it suffers much more from the harm done to it from the inside, especially if you do not sleep enough, smoke, drink a lot alcohol, eat wrong and do not take the necessary vitamins.
The skin consists of three layers: the
upper – the epidermis;
middle – dermis;
lower – subcutaneous fat.
Each of them, in turn, consists of several layers.
The epidermis has five layers. In its lowest layer, the germinal layer, cell reproduction constantly occurs. It also contains the pigment melanin, the amount of which depends on the color of the skin.
There is a prickly layer above the germinal layer. Between the processes of the cells that make up this layer, gaps form; lymph flows in them – a fluid that carries nutrients to cells and takes away waste products from them.
Above the prickly is a granular layer consisting of one or more rows of irregularly shaped cells
A brilliant layer consisting of 3-4 rows of cells is distinguished above the granular one. It is well developed on the palms and soles, but it is almost absent on the red border of the lips.
The stratum corneum is the most superficial. It is dense, elastic, protects the skin from injuries, burns, cold, moisture, exposure to chemicals. Cells of this layer are easily peeled off and quickly updated.
Dermis consists of two layers – papillary and reticular. It contains collagen and elastic fibers that make up the skin frame. In the papillary layer, the fibers are softer and finer than in the reticular, in which they form denser bundles.
Subcutaneous fat. It stores fat reserves that are consumed in adverse situations. Subcutaneous tissue protects the body from bruises and hypothermia.
In the dermis and subcutaneous tissue are the blood and lymph vessels, nerve endings, hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands, muscles.
What are the wrinkles?
By origin, static, dynamic, gravitational and combined wrinkles are distinguished.
Static wrinkles are formed due to damage to skin fibers by harmful factors and due to age-related changes in which blood supply and skin nutrition are impaired, a large number of dead cells accumulate on the surface, the stratum corneum becomes more dense, thickened, and as a result, wrinkles appear.
Dynamic (facial) wrinkles occur as a result of constantly repeated contractions of the facial muscles of the face when talking, laughing, the habit of wrinkling your nose or frowning, etc. In this case, the skin stretches, contracts, and gradually loses its ability to return to its original state. They can appear at a young age with excessive mobility and weakness of the facial muscles.
Gravity (or age-related) wrinkles begin to appear from 40–45 years old. They are the result of natural biological processes of aging not only of the skin, but of the whole organism, of intensive hormonal changes – the level of female sex hormones estrogen is sharply reduced, because of which the elastin fibers thicken, “stiffen” and the collagen fibers become flat, thinning the skin even more . Dehydration processes are intensified, including in bone tissue, which leads to a decrease in its volume and, as a result, drooping of the facial muscles. In addition, the muscles themselves decrease in volume, become flabby, shorten, which leads to sagging, a change in the features and oval of the face.
Combined wrinkles are formed as a result of a combination of several mechanisms described above.