Angina is a common childhood disease. In medical language, it is called acute tonsillitis, and most often it is caused by bacteria. Various staphylococci and streptococci can easily get on the nasopharyngeal mucosa and cause inflammation. However, in addition to pathogenic bacteria, fungi can also cause angina. Including those that are guilty of vaginal thrush and nipple candidiasis.
Such fungal diseases – pharyngomycosis , laryngomycosis , candidal tonsillitis – are difficult to cure. Here’s what parents need to know about these diseases.
Tonsillomycosis and other mycoses of the throat
The causative agents of infection are most often fungi of two groups: yeast-like Candida albicans and molds from the genus Aspergillus . Less commonly, inflammation develops due to the marsupial fungi of saccharomycetes.
Tonsillomycosis , it is also fungal tonsillitis or fungal tonsillitis, is a rare disease. Although it seems rather strange: many have heard about fungal sore throat.
As a rule, people without medical education take pharyngomycosis for fungal sore throat . It is also caused by mushrooms. With this very frequent infection, damage to the entire mucous membrane of the pharynx develops, and mycosis of the oral cavity often joins.
There is also a separate mycosis of the oral cavity, most often it occurs in infants in the form of candidiasis. It usually occurs as a consequence of a maternal infection – thrush, which can affect not only the vaginal mucosa, but also the nipples of the breast. From there, the fungi are transmitted to the baby, causing inflammation.
Oral candidiasis can develop into a more extensive lesion. In case of candidiasis, everyone needs to be treated – a baby, mom and even dad, since thrush in men can occur with mild symptoms.
And if we are talking about true fungal sore throat, tonsillomycosis , then the fungal infection is detected only in the tissues of the tonsils. And this is rare, as disease-causing fungi are quite aggressive.
Causes of fungal sore throat
The fungal flora is part of the normal microflora of the mucous membranes, and the throat too. But usually fungi, present in small quantities on the tonsils, do not cause candidal plugs in the tonsils. Our immune defense is excellent at controlling the number of opportunistic organisms and limiting their activity.
In addition, saliva, which is constantly produced by the salivary glands, is a natural antiseptic that washes the pharynx (if there is no inflammation in the mouth and there is enough saliva).
Therefore, the main causes of candidal tonsillitis in children are imbalance of microflora and weakening of immunity. What most often provokes fungal sore throat?
- Random use of antibiotics
- Improper diet, deficiencies of nutrients, vitamins, minerals.
- Long-term use of hormonal drugs (from the group of corticosteroids).
- Congenital or acquired immunodeficiency in a child.
- Gastroesophageal disease (GERD) in babies, according to studies, changes the acid-base balance in the esophagus and the pharyngeal mucosa, which also becomes a factor in increasing the number of fungi – they like an acidic environment.
- And the most common reason is the enthusiasm for rinsing with antiseptic and antibacterial drugs, both during throat diseases and in the form of mouth rinses instead of or together with brushing teeth.
Symptoms of candidal sore throat
For healthy people around, a person with fungal sore throat is not dangerous: fungi are not transmitted that way. Unless, of course, we are talking about a situation in which a sick baby shares his pacifier, food, rattle or toothbrush with a healthy one. This must be strictly suppressed.
Fungal infection is manifested by a characteristic clinical picture, the so-called “thrush on the tonsils.” It can be one-sided or two-sided.
- With candidiasis, flakes and / or white bloom are visible on the glands, which are easily scraped off. Sometimes inflamed ulcerations are found under it. If the cause is mold, then the plaque will have a yellowish color and ductility.
- The mucous surfaces of the pharynx are red and edematous. You can see the detachment of the superficial epithelium in the affected areas.
Although fungal sore throat is quite characteristic symptomatology, when making a diagnosis, it must be differentiated from other diseases.
Pharyngomycosis is most similar to such a disease , in which a white coating is visible on the tongue and all mucous membranes of the throat.
The second disease that parents can mistake for tonsillomycosis : lacunar tonsillitis. With it, extensive white or yellowish areas are also formed on the tonsils – accumulations of purulent secretions in the lacunae of the glands.
In addition to changing the type of tonsils, fungal tonsillitis in a child is accompanied by:
- sore throat, babies may complain that the throat is “scratched”;
- subfebrile temperature;
- sore throat, sometimes radiating to the ear;
- a general worsening of the condition with aches, muscle pain – children are capricious, cry, hold on to their throats, refuse to eat, sleep poorly.
Chronic candidal tonsillitis can be asymptomatic and only appear on examination.
Important: fungal tonsillitis often turns into pharyngomycosis , candidal stomatitis. It is important to get a diagnosis and start treatment quickly to keep the infection from spreading.
A complication of the disease can be secondary bacterial infections due to injury to the mucous throat, systemic mycoses, mycotic eczema, allergies and recurrent tonsillitis, which occurs every 1-1.5 months (this is associated with the life cycle of fungi).
Treatment of fungal sore throats in children
Children are treated with local and systemic drugs.
- Children over three years old can be prescribed a gargle with fungicidal formulations, and in addition, a weak alkaline solution of baking soda. For children younger or those who cannot gargle, it is recommended to lubricate the affected areas (usually before bedtime).
- For topical treatment solution used Lugol , 5% – ny solution of silver nitrate, terbinafine , natamycin , levorin , clotrimazole – preparations with complex antiseptic and antifungal activity. The usual antiseptics, which are recommended for tonsillitis and tonsillitis, will not help in this case.
- If a child develops a fungal infection against the background of immunodeficiency, severe diabetes mellitus, or has a pronounced chronic form, systemic drugs are indicated – fluconazole, ketoconazole , terbinafine .
All drugs have a number of age restrictions, and they are taken only as directed by a doctor. It is important to know that the duration of treatment for fungal sore throat is two to four weeks. And although a clear improvement in the condition is noticeable after 5-7 days after the onset, it is impossible to interrupt the course of treatment in order to prevent relapse of the disease.