Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses is called sinusitis. Depending on the type of pathogen, the disease can be fungal or bacterial.
Fungal sinusitis is a fungal infection of the maxillary sinus. Domestic plants, among other things, can provoke the appearance of the disease. The fact is that certain indoor flowers release microscopic spores into the air, which can easily enter the body by inhalation, causing unpleasant consequences.
If the immune system is not weakened, the body can protect a person from inflammation. This happens in most cases. However, with reduced immunity, diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary insufficiency, etc., the risk of infection with a fungus increases.
One of the frequent causative agents of the disease is a mold from the genus Aspergillus – Aspergillus niger (Aspergillus black). This is one of the most dangerous fungi, which is also colloquially called black mold. It is present in various places – flowers, soil, often grows on walls in damp, poorly ventilated rooms.
Often, when the fungus enters the body, edema of the mucous membrane and allergies appear. In this case, the sinus fistula narrows, and mucus begins to accumulate in it. The presence of mucus and fungus causes infection and inflammation. The patient may have dark discharge from the nose. The most dangerous is the invasive introduction of mold into the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
By the way, in addition to plants and soil, the fungus can also be present inside children’s rubber toys, which are often lying around in bathrooms. Moisture ingress through shallow openings and poor ventilation leads to the growth of mold in them.
As a rule, the treatment of sinusitis caused by a fungal infection is carried out with the use of antifungal drugs. Taking antibiotics in this case is inappropriate. With a fungal infection, they simply will not help. You also need to understand that the destruction of bacteria leads to an imbalance in the body between the bacterial and fungal flora in favor of the latter, and this increases the risk of developing a fungal infection.
In some cases, removal of fungal growths in the maxillary sinuses can be performed surgically. For this, an endoscope is used – a device at the end of which a miniature television camera is fixed.
Fungal infection of the maxillary sinus requires immediate medical attention. Lack of emergency care, especially with invasive mycosis, can give complications to the eye and brain. The growth of the fungus occurs very quickly.
A clean house is a guarantee of health
It is important to inspect your home for the presence of fungus. Mold often appears on the walls, ceiling, floor, under wallpaper, etc. If traces of it are found, it is necessary to treat the affected surfaces with special compounds. Currently, there is a wide selection of antifungal agents in hardware stores that do an excellent job.
If the fungus is found under wallpaper or other non-base coatings, they should be removed and the surface treated. And only after that you can carry out a new finish. Now on sale there are finishing materials (wallpaper, etc.) with an antifungal coating, as well as household and repair consumables (adhesives, paints, etc.) containing an antifungal agent.
By the way, contrary to popular belief, fungi do not live in water. But for their existence they need a nutrient medium and moisture. Therefore, they often appear on damp wooden walls or in the external ear canal (with prolonged moisture in it), for example.
The development of bacterial sinusitis takes place against the background of a microbial infection entering the sinus. There are many reasons for the appearance of an acute bacterial process in the maxillary sinus. Inflammation can be provoked by:
- Inaccurate filling of the upper jaw tooth with damage to the maxillary sinus.
- Narrowing of the anastomoses.
However, one of the most common causes of bacterial sinusitis is a runny nose. Normally, the contents of the paranasal sinuses flow freely into the nasal cavity and out. During a runny nose, inflammation occurs and the mucous membrane swells. In this case, the sinus fistula narrows (or even overlaps). Mucus begins to accumulate in it and bacteria actively multiply.
Typical Symptoms of Sinusitis
- Pain when tapping on the face – in places where the sinuses are located.
- Increased body temperature.
- Headache .
- Purulent discharge from the nose.
- Loss of smell.
Lack of treatment can lead to serious complications, including the breakthrough of purulent contents from the sinus into the brain.
How to eliminate inflammation?
To treat sinusitis caused by a bacterial infection, your doctor may prescribe:
- Antibiotic use.
- Nasal drops with hormone.
- Rinsing the nose with saline.
If sinusitis is chronic, you need to find out the cause of its appearance. It could be an infection that doesn’t respond to antibiotic treatment. In this case, the correct seeding is selected.
If the disease arises due to any anatomical problem (a crooked nasal septum or narrow sinus fistulas), sinusitis is surgically treated. In the first case, the nasal septum is leveled, in the second – the excretory ducts are expanded – endoscopically with further washing of the dilated anastomoses with an antibacterial drug.
By the way, the use of punctures for the treatment of sinusitis is an outdated procedure. Today, a new method is increasingly used – balloon sinusoplasty . Treatment is carried out under local anesthesia without anesthesia.
The essence of the method is as follows. Through the nasal cavity, a thinnest conductor is introduced into the affected sinus, at the end of which there is a deflated balloon and a small television camera. When the probe enters the maxillary sinus, the balloon is inflated, which expands the anastomosis and allows the contents to flow freely outward. Finally, the sinus cavity is flushed with antibiotics.
After treatment, the doctor may prescribe the patient a short nasal lavage (for example, saline with the addition of one or another antibiotic). You can wash yourself at home.