Psoriasis is an autoimmune dermatosis. Typically, symptoms of the disease are manifested in the presence of hyperemic, dry skin areas throughout the body. Such patches are called psoriatic plaques. At the microscopic level, psoriatic plaques are the result of excessive proliferation of various types of white blood cells and abnormal angiogenesis in the upper layers of the dermis.
This disease is classified as follows: non-pustular types of psoriasis (ordinary or so-called “vulgar” psoriasis, erythrodermic psoriasis) and pustular types ( generalized , palmoplantar , annular , acrodermatitis , herpetiform impetigo). This most general classification includes differences in the disease, both in clinical manifestations and in the degree of prevalence of the inflammatory process.
The aforementioned increased proliferation of keratinocytes , macrophages and lymphocytes contributes to the infiltration of the dermis layers by these cells and, as a consequence, to thickening of the dermis at the sites of infiltration and raising it above the level of healthy skin areas. As a result, specific psoriatic plaques are formed, which eventually become pale gray, resembling paraffin, due to which they are called “paraffin lakes”. Most often, dermatoses are localized on the extensor surfaces of the elbow and knee joints, on the buttocks, on the palms and soles of the feet, on the external genitals and on the scalp.
It was necessary to develop the latest treatment for psoriasis due to the fact that this disease is a source of not only physical discomfort, which can manifest itself as severe itching and pain, but also psychological discomfort (up to deep depression, requiring the help of a specialist) caused by the aesthetic feelings of patients. Adequate treatment should act in a comprehensive manner on all etiological factors of this unpleasant chronic disease.
General principles and pharmacological preparations for the treatment of psoriasis
Treatment may include effects on neuro-allergic, endocrine, metabolic, bacterial and other factors of the etiology of this autoimmune dermatosis. The most effective is the newest treatment of psoriasis , in which the action of pharmacological agents is aimed at stopping the accelerated proliferation of T-lymphocytes, or at stopping the interaction of immunocompetent cells by blocking the release of cytokines.
However, T-lymphocytes perform the most important immune function in the human body, which is not always taken into account by the manufacturers of new drugs. For example, the drug Efalizumab was recently discontinued due to the identification of its strong immunosuppressive properties.
In case of detection of an autoimmune disease should be as soon as possible in accordance with the requirements of the physician to begin a complex newest psoriasis treatment using such proven and well-established drugs such as etanercept , Ustekinumab , Adalimumab , or infliximab . By suppressing the proliferation of humoral immunocompetent cells, these drugs belonging to different groups bind alpha-TNF and prevent the hyperactivation of T-lymphocytes.
Medicines for the treatment of psoriasis are selected individually, depending on many factors. These include: the need for systemic or localized treatment (determined individually, depending on the degree of generalization of the process and the severity of systemic symptoms), general and biochemical blood parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, total leukocyte count, leukocyte formula, etc.), patient age and presence in his body of concomitant diseases. Localized treatment has the advantage of minimizing the side effects that are an integral part of every pharmaceutical product.