Seborrheic dermatitis is a non-infectious dermatological disease, accompanied by multiple rashes all over the body. The disease manifests itself in 5% of the population of our planet. A particular problem is seborrheic dermatitis on the face, as it spoils the appearance. As a result, a person feels not only physical, but also mental discomfort. He tries to avoid society and be alone, feels infringed, his self-esteem decreases, and a depressive state may develop.
There are 3 types of seborrheic dermatitis: oily, dry and mixed. Dry dermatitis on the face is mainly diagnosed in infants. Due to the decrease in fat production, the skin of babies dries up and begins to crack. The fatty form is usually found in men due to greasy skin. With mixed dermatitis, signs of dry seborrhea are found on the scalp, and oily on the face.
Seborrheic dermatitis on the face of a child
Causes of seborrheic dermatitis on the face
The main cause of seborrheic dermatitis is the increased functioning of the sebaceous glands and a change in the composition of the fat they produce. A similar situation develops with excessive reproduction of the fungus Malassezia (in its normal state, it is part of the skin microflora). In this case, it penetrates the sebaceous glands and produces a special secret that forces the subcutaneous fat to break down, forming fatty acids that irritate the skin and contribute to the appearance of rashes.
Dermatitis affects men more often than women, which is explained by the action of androgen, a male hormone. This hormone stimulates the synthesis of subcutaneous fat. In women, the disease usually manifests itself when the level of estrogen decreases and the concentration of androgen increases.
Especially often, seborrheic dermatitis on the forehead is diagnosed in people whose close relatives have a similar problem, which is associated with a hereditary predisposition.
Other factors can also provoke the development of the disease:
- hormonal disruptions;
- disruption of the endocrine system (especially the thyroid gland);
- weakening of the immune system;
- unfavorable ecological situation;
- improper skin care;
- excessive sweating;
- irrational nutrition;
- lack of sleep;
- uncontrolled medication, especially hormonal;
- exacerbation of chronic diseases;
- the presence of an infection in the body;
- dysfunction of the nervous system, manifested in the form of epilepsy or schizophrenia;
- pathology of the gastrointestinal tract;
- frequent stressful situations;
- malignant tumors in the adrenal glands or genitals.
Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis on the face
Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis on the face include:
- the appearance of pink, red or burgundy spots on the skin;
- the formation of white or yellowish scales and hemorrhagic crusts;
- peeling of the skin;
- irritation and increased sensitivity of the skin;
- itching and burning of varying intensity.
The course of the disease is aggravated in autumn. In the summer, unpleasant symptoms usually disappear.
If the ducts of the sebaceous glands are clogged, then acne appears.
The disease is especially severe in men who grow beards and mustaches. Large plaques form under the hairline, which eventually turn into papules. If an infection joins, then erythroderma is also detected. When the papules merge, edematous areas are formed, painted in red.
Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis are similar to those of other dermatological diseases. Therefore, only a doctor can make a correct diagnosis after a thorough examination of the patient.
How to treat seborrheic dermatitis on the face?
When symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis appear on the face, treatment should be carried out by a specialist. Self-medication can only worsen the condition.
The dermatologist will examine the patient’s skin and send it to a laboratory examination. If necessary, he will advise you to consult a neurologist, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, andrologist or gynecologist. Based on the diagnostic results, the doctor will select the optimal treatment, which should be comprehensive. First, the dermatologist prescribes weak drugs. If they do not have the desired result, then it goes to the potent ones.
To effectively cope with the disease, it is imperative to identify and eliminate the cause of the disease. If dermatological problems are caused by disorders in the digestive system, then the patient is referred to a gastroenterologist. After the examination, he will prescribe suitable medications, most often enzymes, sorbents and choleretic agents. Enzymes and choleretic drugs will restore the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, and sorbents will remove toxic substances from the body.
Treatment for nasal dermatitis usually includes:
- compliance with the diet prescribed by the specialist;
- drug therapy;
- maintaining personal hygiene with gentle means.
Drug therapy involves taking:
- antihistamines – relieve itching;
- probiotics – restore intestinal microflora and normalize the functioning of the digestive tract;
- vitamin complexes – strengthen the immune system and increase the body’s resistance.
In addition to medicines intended for oral use, external agents are recommended that have a moisturizing, anti-inflammatory and antifungal effect.
Both glucocorticosteroid hormonal ointments and non-hormonal preparations can be used. But you need to know that glucocorticosteroids , although they have an effective effect (relieve inflammation, swelling and redness), they are addictive and, with prolonged use, provoke side effects (vasodilation, the formation of rosacea and telangiectasia, the development of erythema).
Therefore, it is better to give preference to non-hormonal drugs, among which the means of the Losterin series (cream, ointment, gel, shampoo) have shown particular effectiveness. They are characterized by a neutral composition, do not contain hormones, do not irritate the skin and are not addictive. The drugs included in the Losterin line can be used not only for adults, but also for newborn babies. They are recommended for daily use both during remission and in acute inflammation. Active substances ( naftalan , salicylic acid, natural oils, extracts of medicinal plants) are part of Losterin products in optimal proportions, which determines the most effective therapeutic effect. Even if seborrheic dermatitis has passed, Losterin should continue to be used so that there is no relapse.
Physiotherapy procedures will effectively complement medical treatment. Small doses of ultraviolet light will ease the course of the disease, restore the functioning of the sebaceous glands, relieve redness, swelling and itching.
Prevention of seborrheic dermatitis on the face
To prevent dermatitis on the forehead from causing a relapse, it is recommended to follow a few rules:
- strengthen the immune system;
- cleanse the body of toxins and toxins;
- exclude from the diet salty and spicy foods, fatty and smoked foods, marinades, spices and spices, sweets, chips and crackers, foods containing preservatives, flavor enhancers and dyes;
- introduce fermented milk products into the menu, which include lacto- and bifidobacteria, animal proteins, bran, buckwheat, oatmeal;
- cook food in vegetable oil;
- restore the digestive system.