Stomatitis is a generalized name for inflammation of the mucous membranes of the gums, cheeks, palate, tonsils, and tongue. Every year, a quarter of the country’s population faces the disease, from infants to elderly pensioners, so the logical question often arises is how to quickly cure stomatitis.
General characteristic of stomatitis
Oral inflammation develops in response to external and internal stimuli as an independent disease or a complication of other pathologies.
The manifestation of stomatitis is signaled by changes in the oral mucosa:
- cracks and “jams” in the corners of the lips.
The disease occurs regardless of gender and age, but more often occurs in children under 7 years of age. Inflammation of the infectious etiology is contagious. Pathogens are transmitted by contact and everyday means through kisses, common dishes, personal hygiene items. Non-infectious types of disease are not dangerous to others.
In mild cases, stomatitis in the tongue and mucous membranes is stopped in 2–4 days by rinsing. For the treatment of moderate inflammation, complex therapy will be required, recovery occurs in 7-14 days. Complex forms develop against the background of systemic disorders, it is difficult to treat, the only way to cope with inflammation is to eliminate the root cause.
Types of Stomatitis
Stomatitis is classified by the nature of the course, causes and the depth of the lesion.
By etiology, the following types are distinguished:
- The traumatic appearance is due to mechanical damage. The disease provokes abrasions from fragments of teeth, dentures, braces, solid food, thermal burns after hot drinks, irritation from tobacco smoke.
- Allergic begins with intolerance to the components of prostheses, crowns, fillings, toothpaste, hygienic solutions. Sometimes allergens become foods, drugs.
- Infectious includes 3 subspecies. The viral form is caused by influenza, herpes, chickenpox, rubella, measles. Bacterial develops with damage to staphylococci, streptococci, diplococci, often begins as a complication of infections of the ENT organs. Fungal provoke Candida yeast. This form manifests itself in a weakened immune system, after prolonged treatment with antibiotics, often observed in infants.
- Atrophic appearance occurs with an unbalanced diet, an acute shortage of vitamins A, C, group B, iron, against a background of chronic diseases.
- Toxic is the result of poisoning with metal salts, chemicals.
According to the depth of the inflammatory process and morphological changes, 3 types of disease are distinguished:
- Catarrhal occurs with mechanical irritation, careless hygiene. The mucous membranes swell, redden, hurt, the tongue is covered with a yellowish or whitish coating. This form develops without damage and tissue defects, passes without a trace with quick and proper treatment.
- Aphthous often takes place against the background of gastrointestinal tract disorders, with the defeat of the herpes virus. First, colorless vesicles appear in the mouth. Then they burst and turn into aphthae – round or oval erosive foci with a dirty white or gray film and a red inflamed edging. With the aphthous form, salivation increases, severe pain occurs during eating, swallowing, talking.
- Ulcerative begins when a bacterial infection enters the microcracks. Gums, tongue are covered with ulcerations with a gray coating. The lesion penetrates deep into the mucosa, covers soft tissues, in advanced cases, affects muscle fibers and reaches the bone. As the disease progresses, the tissue dies, so scars remain after healing of the ulcers. Ulcerative stomatitis is accompanied by fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes, and repulsive bad breath.
The acute form is diagnosed when symptoms first occur. Relapse, progressing regardless of the duration of remission, indicates chronic stomatitis. They occur with immunodeficiency, systemic diseases, and untreated acute inflammation.
How to treat, depending on the form of the disease
When signs of inflammation of the oral cavity appear, they turn to the dentist or therapist, and the child is taken to the pediatrician. With a traumatic and allergic type of disease, an external stimulus is eliminated. Defective prostheses are changed, teeth are chipped, new fillings are placed, allergens are identified and removed. Sometimes after these actions, inflammation goes away spontaneously. In the infectious form, the pathogen is determined using microscopic examination, PCR diagnostics. According to the results of laboratory tests, a treatment regimen is chosen.
Inflammation is treated with external etiotropic and symptomatic drugs. The first eliminates the cause, destroys the pathogen. The second ones alleviate discomfort and accelerate recovery.
The table lists how to treat stomatitis in adults:
• Metrogil dent;
• Viru-Merz Serol;
|Painkillers and antiseptics:|
• Hexoral Tabs;
|Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory:|
• Solcoseryl dental paste;
With the ulcer form, oral antibiotics are additionally prescribed, with the herpetic form – antiviral tablets. To correct the protective reactions of the body, take immunomodulators Polyoxidonium, Immunal, vitamin complexes.
The treatment of stomatitis at home is supplemented with herbal compounds:
- They rinse their mouths with decoctions of herbs with antiseptic properties: insist on collecting chamomile, calendula, sage, St. John’s wort, a string, oak bark.
- Juice or pulp of a fresh leaf of Kalanchoe, aloe process ulcers.
- Sea buckthorn and rosehip oil are used to heal cracks and wounds.
- Carrot juice is half diluted with boiled water and rinsed with mucous membranes when ulcers appear.
Folk remedies safely treat only the catarrhal form of the disease at an early stage, for the rest, pharmacy drugs will be required.
How to rinse your mouth
Mucous membranes are periodically cleaned of bacterial plaque with antiseptic solutions:
- hydrogen peroxide;
- potassium permanganate;
Rinses are repeated at least 3-4 times a day after meals before treatment with stomatitis preparations.
Features of treatment during pregnancy
During gestation, most drugs are prohibited, so therapy is started when the first symptoms appear. At an early stage, improvement can be achieved without systemic drugs. In the first trimester, medicines are completely abandoned. Inflammation gradually disappears if you rinse your mouth with decoctions of oak bark, chamomile, and sage 6-7 times a day. Herbs alternate. The wounds are spot treated with aloe juice.
In the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, treatment is supplemented with pharmaceutical preparations under the supervision of a doctor. With the viral form, Viferon gel is used, with the bacterial one at 13 weeks and later, Metrogil Denta is used. Fungal infection is treated by rinsing with a weak soda solution, damage is treated with Nystatin ointment. A universal remedy is Holisal gel, which reduces pain, swelling, disinfects bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pregnant women are allowed to use funds from the 2nd trimester. Before applying ointments, gels, the mouth is treated with Miramistin, chlorhexidine.
Rules for the treatment of childhood stomatitis
Stomatitis comes first among inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity in children. The kid will not be able to explain what worries him, because parents are guided by his behavior. At the same time, they examine the mouth if the child is capricious for no reason, refuses to eat, drink, temperature rises, salivation increases, but there is no cough, runny nose.
Recommendations for pediatricians will quickly cure stomatitis in a child:
- The room maintains humidity at 60%, air temperature – no higher than 22˚C. Thermoregulation at an early age is imperfect, therefore, in a hot room, saliva dries quickly, loses antimicrobial properties.
- The child is fed only soft food: they switch to a homogenized canned food or chopped food in a blender. Solid foods injure the mucous membranes.
- They drink abundantly, do not allow dehydration, if it is painful for the baby to drink, they use a tube.
- Do not give hot food, drinks with temperatures above 30˚C.
- Exclude acidic, spicy foods, fruit juices that irritate the mucous membranes.
- Angular stomatitis or “seizures” in 90% of cases develops with iron deficiency. A hemoglobin level is checked in a child; a clinical blood test shows it.
- After eating, rinse your mouth from food debris with an antiseptic or soda solution – 1 tsp. into a glass of boiled water. The babies are gently wiped with mucous piece of gauze, which is pre-wound on the little finger and moistened in an antiseptic. From infancy, it is allowed to use Derinat, Miramistin solutions.
- With severe pain, dental anesthetics are used: Kalgel, Denthol-baby, Baby Doctor.
- The treatment of mouth ulcers in small patients after 1 year is allowed with Holisal gel.
With the herpetic and bacterial form of the disease, etiotropic drugs are required, they are prescribed only by the doctor in accordance with the age and condition of the child.
The risk of mucosal inflammation is reduced if you follow important recommendations:
- Carefully observe hygiene. Gently brush your teeth, do not injure your gum brush. Additionally use an irrigator, thread, preventive solutions.
- In time to treat caries, periodontal inflammation, nasopharynx infection. Periodically remove tartar.
- Maintain immunity: walk more often, temper, eat balanced, quit smoking.
- Wean a child to constantly lick, bite her lips – a bad habit leads to the development of stomatitis on the lip.
- Regularly wash the pacifier, the toys that the baby pulls in its mouth.
Stomatitis is a non-dangerous disease, but in advanced cases it constantly returns, sometimes more often 3-4 times a year. Doctors advise not to wait until the inflammation “goes away”, but to immediately treat an unpleasant ailment.