Among fungal occupational diseases, aspergillosis and actinomycosis deserve special attention .
Aspergillosis is most often caused by molds Aspergillus fumigatus and niger, and these fungi are pathogenic not only for humans, but also for animals (birds, domestic animals: horses, donkeys, cows, dogs, etc.). When inhaling dust containing fungal spores, the so-called pneumomycosis develops, proceeding as bronchitis (sometimes asthmatic) and recurrent bronchopneumonia. They are found in bakers, flour mills, working elevators and breweries, agricultural workers, carpenters, joiners, feather-pickers, workers in paper spinning mills.
In addition to respiratory diseases, these fungi can cause ulceration of the cornea (usually as a complication of trauma), inflammation of the outer and middle ear, and skin damage.
Prevention consists primarily in the arrangement of rational dedusting ventilation , personal protection (dust masks, goggles) and compliance with personal hygiene rules.
Actinomycosis. Called by radiant mushrooms that parasitize plants. These include actinomycetes that live on plants (especially cereals), in soil, and water.
Actinomycetes are pathogenic to humans and cattle. Occupational diseases with actinomycosis are possible in agricultural workers. Infection can occur through the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. With a broncho-pulmonary form of actinomycosis, a cough with mucopurulent sputum with an admixture of blood is observed. In advanced cases, there may be: a chronic lung abscess, exudative pleurisy, and when the fungus grows into the chest wall – non-healing fistulas. The intestinal form is relatively rare and is also characterized by a tendency to abscess formation and the formation of fistulas.
When skin lesions are distinguished, gummous, ulcerative and tubercular forms, with painless nodules, which are subsequently softened and opened. Serous-purulent discharge contains yellowish grains – Druze fungus.
In order to prevent the threshing , loading and unloading of grain, the preparation of spinous feed, it is necessary to use dust masks and respirators. Spin feed should be steamed. Sick animals are subject to isolation, and the premises where they were kept are disinfected.