Dermatomycosis – fungal diseases of the skin, nails, hair, caused by a group of related filamentous fungi, which include tricho- and epidermophytos, microsporum. Accordingly, the first group of fungi affects the skin, nails and hair, the second group – only the skin and the third – mainly hair.
Sources of infection with different types of trichophyton and microsporum can be both humans and animals, while epidermophytos are transmitted only between people.
It is characteristic that an infected person acquires a certain resistance to re-infection.
Dermatomycosis of the face, trunk, arms and legs
The reasons for the development. These fungal infections in children are mainly caused by Mlsgoyarogitis satz. Infected pets are usually the source of infection.
Clinic. When infected, dry, slightly erythematous raised papules or plaques with a scaly surface appear on the skin. The disease is characterized by the spread of skin changes along the periphery of the primary lesions with simultaneous cleansing in the center, as a result of which it is called lichen ring. Less commonly, the disease manifests itself in the form of grouped pustules, while the center of the focus is cleared, but not always.
Treatment for this disease is external. Antifungal agents are prescribed twice a day for 2-4 weeks until complete recovery. In case of persistent and complicated course, treatment with griseoful-vin-microcrystallin is recommended for several weeks.
Dermatomycosis of the groin area
The reasons for the development. The source of infection is usually a person infected with fungi, in more rare cases – an animal. More often, the disease occurs in male adolescents.
Clinic. First, there are raised, scaly erythematous rashes of a small size on the inner thigh. Then these formations grow along the periphery, often forming multiple small bubbles. As they grow, these elements merge with each other into bilateral, irregularly shaped, clearly delimited plaques with a brightly colored scaly center. Skin changes are accompanied by itching, which subsides as the inflammatory response decreases.
In severe cases, the fungal infection can spread beyond the affected thigh.
Treatment. The infection resolves spontaneously. The use of absorbent powder (zinc undecylenate) and the wearing of cotton underwear are recommended.
Local treatment is carried out only in cases of severe fungal infection.
The reasons for the development. This form of fungal infection affects the skin on the pads of the fingers and plantar surfaces. Usually the infection is localized in the III and IV fingers.
Mostly young children get sick, but an infectious lesion can also occur in boys during the prepubertal and pubertal periods.
Airtight footwear and warm, damp weather predispose to fungal infections. Infection is possible when visiting
shower and swimming pools.
With this fungal infection, the skin of the interdigital and base of the fingers becomes cracked and macerated, which is accompanied by painful itching and an unpleasant odor.
In young children, the lesions are presented in the form of bubbles, are usually rounded and affect the dorsum of the foot.
In rare cases, there is a chronic form of the disease in the form of increased keratinization of the plantar surfaces, accompanied by slight erythema.
Treatment. Despite its severity, the disease resolves spontaneously. Thorough wiping of the interdigital spaces after bathing, the use of absorbent antifungal powders, and the wearing of breathable shoes are recommended.
Sluggish chronic fungal infections are treated with griseofulvin, but relapses are not uncommon.
Dermatomycosis of the palms
The reasons for the development. This form of fungal infection is rare and only in children and adolescents. Dermatomycosis of the palms is caused by a dimorphic fungus that gives a gray-black tint to the palmar surfaces.
Clinic. The infection is expressed by the appearance on the palmar surfaces of clearly defined hyperpigmented spots that do not cause concern to the patient.
Treatment. For the purpose of treatment, Vitfeld’s ointment with undecylenic acid or iodine tincture is prescribed.
Dermatomycosis of the nail plate
The reasons for the development. Most often accompanied by dermatomycosis of the pads of the fingers and plantar surfaces, however, it can begin as a primary infection.
Clinic. The mildest course of a fungal infection appears as single or multiple white plaques on the surface of the foot, not associated with paronychia.
A more pronounced process of fungal infection begins from the lateral or distal edge of the nail, which gradually thickens, becomes brittle, acquires a yellowish tint and exfoliates from the nail bed. In severe cases, the nail may turn black and peel off.
Treatment. Treatment of dermatomycosis of the nail plate is often difficult. With a severe form of fungal infection, patients wishing to recover are prescribed griseo-fulvin and local applications of antifungal drugs. The use of griseofulvin is not always successful and may be required for a long period – more than 1 year.
Side effects of griseofulvin are rare; these include functional disorders in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, headache, changes in the blood.
Dermatomycosis of the scalp
The reasons for the development. The source of infection with dermatomycosis of the scalp is most often infected people. You can get infected through combs, hats, etc. With close contact with a patient, dermatophytes may spread with air currents.
Clinic. The clinical picture of dermatomycosis of hair is different and depends on the pathogen.
When infected with M. audoini, small papules first form at the base of the hair follicle. Then the foci of infection spread, merge with each other, forming erythematous round scaling plaques, the hair on which becomes brittle. These changes are accompanied by severe itching.
T. tonsurans causes lichen maculae. At the onset of the disease, multiple rounded plaques appear, in the area of which the hair breaks off at the follicle and becomes like dots. A pronounced inflammatory reaction leads to the formation of kerions (elevated granulomatous masses), the surface of which is covered with sterile pustules. Scars and chronic alopecia (baldness) may subsequently develop .
Treatment. For treatment, griseo-fulvin is prescribed. Treatment with courses of 8-12 weeks may be required.
Local use of shampoos with a 2.5% sulfidoselen solution is recommended. It is not necessary to trim the hair from the head.